List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (2004): Zur Verbreitung der südostasiatischen wilden Seidenspinner, sowie ein Diskussionsbeitrag zu den zoogeographischen Zonen im indonesischen Archipel (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Beiträge zur Kenntnis der wilden Seidenspinner (Wilhelmshaven), 2 (1): pp. 3-55; 4 tables, 36 maps.

On the distribution of the wild silkmoths in Southeast Asia, and a discussion on the zoogeographic zones in the Indonesian Archipelago (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

Summary: This contribution on knowledge the Southeast Asian wild silkmoths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) deals with the distribution pattern of the wild silkmoths in Southeast Asia. The ranges of the tribes, genera, subgenera, species-groups, species and subspecies of the Saturniidae are recorded and compared. Zoogeographic zones for the Saturniidae in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Indonesian Archipelago are determined. In the Indonesian Archipelago the zoogeographic boundary and particularly the zoogeographic zones are complex, but mostly correspond with those known for the plant species, bird species, mammal species and marsupial species in the Archieplago. The boundary between the Oriental Realm and the Australian Realm in the Moluccas and the Lesser Sunda Islands is considered being almost smooth and not representing an exact border. The ranges of the Oriental and the Australian Saturniid faunas are overlaping in the Moluccas. The island of Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda Islands, and the Moluccas likely were occupied by Saturniidae mostly during the last 2.000.000 years when the sea levels were up to 180 m lower than at present and therefore exposed the Sunda Shelf and the Sahul Shelf during the glacials. Continental islands as Borneo, Sumatera and Jawa (Sunda Shelf) were connected to the Asian mainland, and the Aru Archipelago and New Guinea (Sahul Shelf) were connected to the Australian continent. Due to the connection of Sumatera to Asia this island is particularly rich in species. Islands of archipelagos were occasionally connected, land-bridges were formed and distances between islands were often much reduced due to the lower sea levels. Therefore island-hopping and the dispersal of Saturniidae via land-bridges was more easy than during the interglacial. Large glaciers were formed on islands with higher mountain ranges. Due to the generally colder climates the snowlines droped about 500 m, which caused that the altitudinally distribution of plants went down about the same distance. Finally the fauna follows the flora in lower altitudes. Repeatedly dramatic changes in the climate likely caused dramatic changes in flora and fauna as well. The rise in sea levels during the interglacial caused that the continental islands were disconnected from the mainland again and land-bridges were reduced. Dispersal of populations and gene flow between populations of different islands or between islands and the mainland became hardly possible. The birth of new taxa most likely was caused by some major changes in the climate and insular isolation.