List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, R., & Paukstadt, U. (2002): Beitrag zur Kenntnis der männlichen Antennenmorphologie von Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Supplement 12: pp. 27-51; 1 table, 26 b/w-figs.

Summary: Contribution on the morphology of the male antennae in Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - This contribution particularly deals with the morphology of the male antennae of the giant atlas moth Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) from the island of Java, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The authors present several SEM-pictures, macro- and micro-pictures, which are demonstrating the rather complex antennal surface structures of the male A. atlas moth. The antennae are mostly quadripectinate (cf. Scoble, 1995; = doubly bipectinate sensu Peigler, 1989) with scape, pedicle and about 39-48 flagellar segments, the distal segments of the antennae are bipectinate because the distal rami each segment are fully reduced. There are mostly two pairs of branches (rami) each segment, of which the distal rami usually are slightly longer than the proximal rami. Proximal and distal segments are with shortest rami, while the longest ones arise from central segments. The distal rami arise from middorsally each segment and are proximally more bent, but the proximal rami arise from near laterally and are more straight. Therefore the rami of the antennae form two layers in cross-section. Segments and rami are covered with different sensillae, which are generally classified according to their external morphology. In A. atlas the rami are one-sided covered with Sensilla trichodea, the most conspicuous type of sense organ at the antenna. The antenna forms with its rami and Sensilla trichodea a sieve-like filter for the air containing odorous substances and pheromones. Much different types of sensillae are present at the antennae bear mechanoreceptive, chemoreceptive, thermoreceptive, hygroreceptive sensory cells (receptors), of which some of those might be combined in one sensilla type. The structures of the male antennae of A. atlas are figured and described in detail.

Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) - SEM-figures of male antenna



top) apical antennal segments with Sensilla styloconica (arrow a) at the distal border of the segments, and reduced rami (arrow b); numerous small setae of "hose"-like structure are present on the antennal segments (Sensilla basiconica); rami are covered with long setae (Sensilla trichodea).
center) detail of the distal border of an apical antennal segment; four Sensilla styloconica (arrow a) are present and an upright spine (Sensillum chaeticum) (arrow b); numerous Sensilla basiconica are present on the antennal segment; the proximal border of each following segment is without Sensilla at the link.
bottom) basal antennal segment without Sensilla styloconica; several rows of Sensilla trichodea are present.




top) cross-section of an antennal segment, rami densely covered with Sensilla trichodea, double layer of proximal and distal rami well recognizable, unidentified seta present on antennal segment (arrow a).
bottom left) detail of an unidentified seta, which is shown in previous figure, longitudinal grooves showing grating-like cross-struts and pores (arrow a); according to the Altner's classification the seta is placed to the wp-sensillum type.
bottom right) rami with Sensilla trichodea placed in 4-5 longitudinal rows (arrow a), a few single Sensilla basiconia are middorsally present (arrow b).




top) apical antennal segment with four closely located "holes" (arrow a); furthermore numerous Sensilla basiconica (arrow b) and three Sensilla chaetica (arrow c) are present.
bottom left) detail of the "holes" of unknown function and identity, which are mentioned in previous figure.
bottom center) detail of Sensillum basiconicum.
bottom right) detail of antennal segment without sensilla, but covered with spine- and scale-like 'false setae'.




top left) lateral view of ramus with Sensilla trichodea (arrow a) and Sensilla basiconica (arrow b).
top right) apex of ramus bearing three bristles "Sensilla chaetica" (arrow a).
bottom left) lateral view of ramus bearing two Sensilla chaetica (arrow a).
bottom right) detail of Sensillum chaeticum with crown-like base and longitudinal grooves; pores are located in the grooves.




top) rami, occasionally apices recognizable; a single Sensillum chaeticum is present on the Sensilla trichodea-free side of the ramus (arrow a); furthermore Sensilla coeloconica are present (arrow b) and thorn-like structures (arrow c), which are placed to Sensilla styloconica.
bottom left) detail of Sensillum styloconicum, recognizable the stylus and the poreless surface of the conus.
bottom right) lateral view of Sensillum styloconicum.




top center) detail of ramus with straight Sensillum chaeticum bearing a rounded apex; sensillae bearing chemoreceptive sensory cells are present in the background.
top left) lateral view of a ramus including its apex, ramus covered with numerous Sensilla trichodea and a single Sensillum chaeticum (arrow a).
top right) detail of an apex of a ramus bearing a single Sensillum chaeticum within an area without sensillae.
bottom) detail of the apex of Sensillum chaeticum; longitudinal grooves are recognizable in the lowermost left portion of the figure, which are fused towards the apex; pores are present in the grooves (arrow a).