List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)


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Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (2001): Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Antheraea (Antheraeopsis) youngi Watson, 1915 von Jawa, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Suppl. 10: pp. 17-33; 8 b/w figs, col.-pl. with 11 figs.

Summary: The life-history of Antheraea (Antheraeopsis) youngi Watson, 1915 from the island of Java, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - For the first time the preimaginal instars of Antheraea (Antheraeopsis) youngi Watson, 1915 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from the island of Java, Indonesia are described and figured in color. Adults of the subgenus Antheraeopsis Wood-Mason, 1886 are not common at light. Therefore we were much surprised when our friends obtained a few eggs from a female which came to light in western Java. The populations from Java were placed to A. assamensis rubiginea Toxopeus, 1940. Presently the name rubiginea is considered being a junior synonym of youngi, but the status of rubiginea remains to be determined after more specimens are available in collections. The populations from Java were observed being much variable and clearly not belong to A. (Ao.) assamensis (Helfer, 1837). Van Eecke (1922) described A. brunnea from Sumatra, which recently was re-established for the populations from Sumatra, cf. Brechlin (2001). After the examination of some material from Sumatra and Borneo, which include the rare females, we considered brunnea being a junior synonym of A. (Ao.) youngi, which originally was described from the island of Borneo. The morphology as well as the genitalia morphology of the populations from Java, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia are not clearly distinct. Presently the populations of the subgenus Antheraeopsis from Java are preliminary applied to the taxon youngi Watson, 1915, but further studies with more material are needed for a final conclusion on the status of the Javanese populations.

Rearing observations:
The female came to light on the Mt. Halimun, 1270 m above sea level, West Java, Indonesia on the 4th of September, 2000 at 23.31 hours local time. Eggs were laid on the 4th till 6th of September, and sent to Germany by Air Mail Express letter. The first larva hatched on the 15. IX. 2000. Larvae did not eat egg shells. The first moulting took place on the 22. IX., 2nd moulting 27. IX., 3rd moulting 05. X., and 4th moulting 13. X. 2000 (the data of the first larva in this rearing is given). Larvae occasionally eat the cuticle after moulting. The first cocoon was spun on the 28.X. 2000, the pupating date was not observed. Mature larva ca. 10-11 cm long. Largest diameter of the head capsules in 1st till 5th larval instars (growing rate given in per cent in rounded brackets), 1st instar 1.56 mm, 2nd instar 2.10-2.45 mm (45.8), 3rd instar 3.20-3.45 mm (46.2), 4th instar 4.50-5.00 mm (43.3), and 5th (last) instar 6.7 mm (40.6). Fife larval instars were recorded. Larvae seem to be polyphagous. Several foodplants of different families were offered and accepted in 1st larval instar, but finally the rearing was carried out using Himalaya birch (Betula utilis, Betulaceae) as foodplant. The number of eight cocoons were obtained from this rearing of which two male and four female specimens emerged from between January and July 2001, two larvae were found dead in its cocoons.

Description of the immature stages:
Ovum length approximately 2.90-3.00 mm, width approx. 2.55-2.60 mm and height approx. 1.95-2.00 mm, the chorion is ca. 0.05 mm thick, the shape is elongated flat oval, not ovoid. The ground coloration of the outer surface is soft ochre with unregularly pale brown patches, one end with a conspicuous light ocre brownish microphyle area; inner surface dully white. Chorionic sculpturing conspicuous. Chorion covered with plenty of tiny aerophyle crowns, which are placed around irregular shaped depressions in the chorion. Each depression is mostly surrounded by the number of fife till seven aerophyle crowns. Microphyle area without aerophyle crowns. The chorion is partly covered with a dark reddish or black secretion for affixing egg to substrate.
1st instar larva approximately 9 mm long after hatching from egg. Head capsule glossy black with white bristles, clypeus white and labrum brown, diameter of head capsule as stated in the section 'rearing observations'. Ground coloration of integument yellow. Segments with each two black stripes anterior and posterior of the segmental transversal row of scoli. Anterior stripes laterally facing down towards spiracles and the posterior stripes laterally facing down towards the black subspiracular scoli. Black transversal stripes at prothorax interrupted and reduced. Scoli black colored, mostly in six or eight longitudinal rows, all scoli supported by partly much prominent fleshy extensions of body. Prothorax with 6 scoli, either the dorsal and subdorsal scoli or the subdorsal and subspiracular scoli are fused and therefore bear a larger number of bristles. Meso- and metathorax with each 8 scoli of which the lowermost are much reduced. 1st, 2nd and 7th abdominal segment with each 6 scoli, ventrolaterally usually a single strong long bristle present which much likely represents a totally reduced scolus. 3rd-6th abdominal segment with each 6 scoli plus two abdominal prolegs. 8th abdominal segment with 6 scoli. A single prominent fleshy extension of body supports the middorsal scolus, which is fused but the apices of the scoli itself are well separated with each the fully number of bristles as in other dorsal scoli of abdominal segments. 8th and 9th abdominal segment ventrolaterally with each a single strong bristle which might represents a reduced scoli. 9th abdominal segment with 4 scoli of which the lowermost scoli are supported by particularly prominent fleshy extensions of the body. Posterior end of the anal plate with two yellowish colored scoli plus one scolus each side at the border of the anal plate. Fleshy extensions of body which are supporting the scoli are particularly prominent on thoracic and anal segments. Scoli mostly bear fife black bristles. More bristles present on some scoli of thoracic segments and 9th and 10th abdominal segments. Legs, transversal stripe on the outside of each abdominal prolegs and patch on the outside of each anal proleg black, prothoracic shield yellow as ground coloration of integument. The 1st instar larvae are not gregarious but they are living in groups on the underside of the leafs of the foodplant.
2nd instar larva morphologically much distinct from previous instar. Head glossy black including clypeus, frons brown, bristles white, apex of the antenna brown. Diameter of head capsule as stated in section 'rearing observations'. Thoracic legs, abdominal prolegs, patch on the outside of each anal proleg black, anterior greenish bordered. Anal prolegs and abdominal prolegs with white bristles. Prothoracic shield dully black. Anal plate with a trapezoid shaped glossy black patch. Spiracles small brownish, greenish centered and bordered. Ground coloration of integument yellow as in previous instar, ventrally pale greenish. Greenish longitudinal stripes middorsal, subdorsal and supraspiracular on thoracic and abdominal segments present. Abdominal segments laterally mostly with each two inclined green stripes. The uppermost stripe runs through the spiracle and the lowermost through the base of the subspiracular scolus. Dorsal scoli of prothorax purple, dorsal and subdorsal scoli of other thoracic and abdominal segments pale blue, subspiracular scoli and scoli at the posterior end of the anal plate translucent pale blue. Bases of middorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment fused but apices still well separated and with doubled number of bristles. Bristles more prominent than in previous instar. Prominent thoracic and abdominal scoli mostly with a centered slender black hair with white apex. Posterior end of anal plate with short brown bristles. A very nice larva in this and the following instar.
3rd instar larva head capsule and thoracic legs brown, frons pale brown, head capsule with pale ochre brownish bristles, diameter of head capsule as stated in the section 'rearing observations'. Yellow ground coloration of integument slightly reduced and the green stripes much more prominent in this instar. After moulting the scoli are first blue, later mostly purple colored. Prothoracic shield black, middorsally split. Abdominal prolegs laterally black, each centered with a small transversal yellow band in which the hairbases of bristles are black colored. Black patch on the outside of each anal proleg anteriorly deep green bordered. Lateral inclined small stripes running through spiracles dark green colored and yellow bordered. Spiracles small and brown colored. Conspicuous supraspiracular yellow line present on abdominal segments. Uppermost part of this line deep green bordered. 1st till 5th abdominal segments dorsally at posterior end with groups of very tiny hairs colored as body. 1st till 8th abdominal segments each dorsally with a row of yellow strong hairs not longer than scoli, hairs facing cephad. Fleshy extensions of body supporting subdorsal and subspiracular scoli less prominent than in previous instar. Middorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment more fused, but apices still well separated bearing each 4 till 5 spines.
4th instar larva morphologically repeatedly much distinct from previous instar. Head capsule and thoracic legs dark brown, diameter of head capsule as stated in the section 'rearing observations'. Ground coloration of integument yellowish green. A conspicuous pale yellow longitudinal stripe supraspiracularly on abdominal segments and a yellow patch dorsally on the prothorax present. Anal plate colored as body. Larva subspiracularly and ventrally dark green, longitudinal lateral stripe subdorsally dark green bordered. Spiracles mostly black, except on 8th abdominal segment where the spiracles are pale brown in this and last instar. Abdominal legs green, lowermost border black, bristles on conspicuous black hair bases. The outside of each anal proleg green, black bordered, as well as the border of the anal plate. Pattern and coloration of anal prolegs typical for specimens in this subgenus. Dorsal scoli on prothorax yellowish colored and supported by fleshy extensions of body which are uppermost black and lowermost pale creme, all other scoli green colored. Bases of dorsal scoli of metathorax and 1st till 7th abdominal segments outside with weak whitish or silvery patch. Subspiracular scoli dome like reduced. Scoli with short bristles at apex and mostly with a slender long black hair with a long white apex. Slender hairs longer than diameter of body. Long white hairs dorsally and subdorsally anteriorly present on metathorax and 1st till 8th abdominal segments, hairs facing cephad. Shorther white hairs dorsally present between both rows of dorsal abdominal scoli, hairs facing cephad too. Very short white hairs dorsally present at the posterior end of each abdominal segment.
5th instar larva morphologically again much distinct from previous instar and slightly variable in coloration of scoli. Head capsule and thoracic legs dark brown, diameter of head capsule as stated in the section 'rearing observations'. Ground coloration of integument green, abdominal segments supraspiracularly (area between longitudinal rows of spiracles and subdorsal scoli) with a conspicuous longitudinal yellow line. Longitudinal lateral yellow line bordered by an interrupted brownish line connecting subdorsal row of scoli. Spiracles mostly black colored, yellowish centered. Just after moulting dorsal scoli of prothorax deep red and most of the other scoli reddish or deep purple. Later all scoli become brownish. Dorsal scoli of abdominal segments with a silvery shining patch on the outside of its bases. Subdorsal and subspiracular scoli reduced; spines at apex of scoli reduced in number and length. Dorsal long white hairs as in previous instar but reduced in number, dorsal short white hairs absent. Abdominal legs green as body, black coloration much reduced, black hairbases in this instar much reduced. Anal prolegs as in previous instar. Length of the mature larva under rearing conditions about 10-12 cm long.
Pupa in the female length 35 mm, largest diameter 15 mm (male 33/13 mm). Color almost dark reddish brown. Cremaster rounded with slightly curved strong spines analogous to the bristles at posterior end of anal plate of mature larvae, spines each approximately 0.2-0.6 mm long (locking mechanism to fix pupa to the inner wall of the cocoon). Female antennal covers length 12.5 mm and largest breadth 4.6 mm (male 12.0/5.1 mm), same length than covers of middle legs. Short rounded tubercles dorsally present on 1st till 7th abdominal segments analogous dorsal scoli of mature larvae, no bristles present dorsally on thoracic and abdominal segments, except on cremaster. Male pupa with much more prominent tubercles dorsally on abdominal segment which are on 1st till 3rd abdominal segment ca. 0.5 mm long, at its base 0.5 mm and apex 0.2 mm in diameter. Tubercles on 1st abdominal segment larger than on 7th. Two small tubercles present on posterior end of thorax analogous to dorsal scoli of metathorax of mature larvae.
Cocoon length approximately 4-5 cm and largest diameter 2.5 cm. The cocoon is fitted with the uppermost apex to a twig and covered with one or two leafs. The upper part of the cocoon is peaked and the bottom is rounded. No opening present through which the adult may emerge. Wall thin but strong, pale silver gray or reddish brown colored.