List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (2000): Die Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Antheraea (Antheraea) raffrayi Bouvier, 1928 von Bali, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg); 16 (4): 129-138; col.-pl. with 10 figs.

Summary: The life-history of Antheraea (Antheraea) raffrayi Bouvier, 1928 from the island of Bali, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Antheraea (Antheraea) raffrayi Bouvier, 1928 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is considered a taxon restricted to the islands of Java and Bali, Indonesia. A. raffrayi is a member of the platessa-complex of the frithi-subgroup (sensu Nässig 1991) of the mylitta/frithi-group (sensu U. Paukstadt, Brosch & L. H. Paukstadt 1999). The eastern and western limits of the range of A. raffrayi are only poorly known. Other taxa in the platessa-complex are A. ranakaensis U. Paukstadt, L. H. Paukstadt & Suhardjono, 1997 from the eastern Lesser Sunda Islands, A. sumbawaensis Brechlin, 2000 from the western Lesser Sunda Islands, A. platessa platessa W. Rothschild, 1903 and A. platessa ornata Bouvier, 1929 from the Asian mainland, and A. schroederi U. Paukstadt, Brosch & L. H. Paukstadt, 1999 from the Philippines. The doubtful A. (Ao.) yunnanensis Chu & Wang, 1993 from China, which presently is considered a species inquirenda might be a taxon either of the platessa-complex or the subgenus Antheraeopsis Wood-Mason, 1886. From Borneo fusca W. Rothschild, 1903 was named. This name was lowered into synonymy of A. platessa by Nässig (1992). Presently we consider fusca being of unclear status. For the first time the preimaginal instars of A. raffrayi from the island of Bali, Indonesia are described and figured and compared to those of A. platessa from North Borneo. The preimaginal instars of the populations of the platessa-complex from North Borneo and Bali are distinct. Some notes on the biology and ecology of A. raffrayi are presented. A. raffrayi was successfully reared indoors by the senior author using Himalaya birch (Betula utilis, Betulaceae) as foodplant.

Description of the immature stages:
Ovum length approximately 2.6 mm, width 2.3 mm, height 1.8 mm, and chorion 0.025 mm thick. Coloration outside reddish brown, inside whitish; chorionic sculpturing conspicuous, mostly honeycomb-shaped. Chorion is covered with aerophyle crowns. Ovum partially covered with brownish or dark reddish brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate.
1st instar larva approximately 6 mm long, main coloration yellowish green; each abdominal segment with two transverse stripes just before and behind the transverse rows of scoli, stripes are dorsally soft brownish and laterally black colored. Subspiracular scoli of the 1st till 8th abdominal segments are black. The abdominal segments show additionally each one short transverse white and black stripe between subdorsal and subspiracular scoli. Head, prothoracic shield, dorsal prothoracic scoli, legs, anal plate, anal prolegs, and spiracles black. Prolegs with a dark brown transverse ring at base. Scoli supported by fleshy extensions of body, not prominent, extensions of body supporting subspiracular scoli generally shorter than those of other scoli. Scoli mostly in 6 longitudinal rows, except for prothorax with 8, 9th abdominal segment with 4, and 10th abdominal segment (anal plate) at posterior end with 2 scoli. Extensions of body supporting dorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment fused but the scoli itself well separated. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli of prothorax fused but tips still separated. Scoli bearing mostly 5-6 translucent whitish or brownish bristles at apex, the prominent scoli of the thoracic and the 9th abdominal segments bearing approx. 10-15 bristles. Bristles of subspiracular, prothoracic and anal scoli longer and those of dorsal scoli more strong. Larva in this instar almost similar A. platessa (North Borneo).
2nd instar larva yellowish green, covered with conspicuous club-shaped white setae, which were not observed being present in A. platessa (North Borneo). Yellowish lateral line connecting subdorsal scoli of abdominal segments continue on the anal prolegs. Prolegs with a brown transverse stripe, anal prolegs, border of the anal plate, prothoracic shield black. Head and thoracic legs dark brown. Head and thoracic legs of A. platessa (North Borneo) turns brown in mature larvae. Dorsal thoracic scoli and dorsal scoli of the 1st and 8th abdominal segments black with an orange base, other scoli orange. Extensions of body supporting dorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment fused, tips always well separated with two rings of bristles in this and all following instars. Distance between dorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment clearly smaller than in A. platessa (North Borneo). Scoli of the abdominal segments dorsally with each 5 strong bristles and centered with a long black hair, subdorsal scoli reduced with 2-3 strong bristles and a centered long black hair, subspiracular scoli with each 3 strong bristles and approximately 3 long black hairs. Thoracic scoli with stronger bristles and lateral scoli with longer hairs than other.
3rd instar larva ground color green, a lateral beige line connecting subdorsal scoli and anal prolegs. Extensions of body supporting scoli, 9th and 10th abdominal segment and prothorax yellowish, spiracles dark brown. Head, legs and anal prolegs brown. Prothoracic shield small black, its scoli much reduced and reddish. Black bristles on bases of abdominal prolegs with conspicuous black hair bases. Dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax reddish with black apex. Scoli of anal plate light brown. Dorsal thoracic scoli and subdorsal scoli of prothorax supported by fleshy extensions of body. Other Scoli mostly much reduced, subdorsally pale orange and subspiracularly turquoise. Bristles mostly reduced in length, single black hairs longer. The cuticle is covered with plenty of small beige club-shaped hairs. Dorsally and subdorsally yellowish longer hairs are present on abdominal segments, facing cephad.
4th larval instar ground color either green or yellowish, prothorax and extensions supporting thoracic legs yellow, lateral longitudinal stripe beige. Head brown. Anal plate border and triangular patch on the outside of each anal proleg brown, each white bordered. Fleshy extensions supporting dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax yellow, scoli black. Dorsal and subspiracular scoli of abdominal segments reduced, turquoise colored. Subdorsal scoli of abdominal segments almost reduced. Bristles and hairs mostly as in previous instar. Short club-shaped (knobbed) hairs are longer and less club-shaped. Spiracles black, yellow centered. Larva clearly distinct from A. (A.) platessa (North Borneo).
5th larval instar not much different from previous instar. Ground color either green or yellowish. Yellowish coloration generally reduced on thoracic and anal segments. Prothorax dorsally with a conspicuous reddish stripe connecting dorsal scoli and a black line towards the head capsule. Shorter hairs not club-shaped anymore, but elongated. Mature larva under rearing conditions approximately 10 cm long.
Cocoon with a single wall, oval in shape, silver-gray colored. Length 33-42 mm and largest diameter 17-20 mm. Mostly similar as in other taxa of the frithi-subgroup (sensu Nässig 1991). Cocoon wrapped into one or two leafes and fixed to the substrate (leaf and twig) by silk; cocoon not extraordinary hard, occasionally with peduncle as in the Indian A. mylitta (Drury, 1773), but less strong. Cocoon and leaf covered with a white powder.
Pupa in the male length 30 mm and largest breadth 14 mm, dark brownish black colored. Transparent brown hairs approximately 0.5 mm long at thoracic and abdominal segments. Strong spines at apex of cremaster mostly facing dorsally, a few spines facing ventrally for affixing pupae to loose silk in the bottom of the cocoon. Antennal cover lenght 10.0 mm and breadth 4.8 mm. Covers of hind legs longer than antennal covers. Head with a transparent light-detecting 'window' between eye covers. Note: Collective-group names used in this contribution were established tentative for certain assemblages of taxonomic convenience, they do not comply with the requirements for a valid description according to the provisions of the ICZN (1999). In the application of group names we follow NÄSSIG (1991), with small modifications by us.