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Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (2000): Die Präimaginalstadien von Antheraea (Antheraea) exspectata Brechlin, 2000 von Sulawesi, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), 16 (3): pp. 109-124; col.-pl. with 11 figs., 2 b/w figs.

Summary: The life-history of Antheraea (Antheraea) exspectata Brechlin, 2000 from Sulawesi, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Antheraea (Antheraea) exspectata Brechlin, 2000 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia represents a taxon of the cordifolia-subgroup (sensu Holloway et al. 1996) of the mylitta/frithi-group (sensu U. Paukstadt, Brosch & L. H. Paukstadt 1999). We have to point out that the collective-group names used in this contribution were established tentative for certain assemblages of taxonomic convenience only, they do not comply with the requirements for a valid description according to the provisions of the ICZN (1999). In the application of group-names we follow Nässig (1991) with small modifications by us. Thus far only ten species of the subgenus Antheraea Hübner, 1819 ("1816") are recognized for the Island of Sulawesi. A. celebensis Watson, 1915 and A. platessa W. Rothschild, 1903 (only two single records of A. platessa are known thus far) belong to the frithi-subgroup (sensu Nässig 1991) of the mylitta/frithi-group. A. rosemariae Holloway, Nässig & Naumann, 1995 is the only species known from Sulawesi, which belongs to the helferi-group (sensu Nässig 1991). A. cihangiri Naumann & Nässig, 1998 (the status needs finally determined with more material) represents the only taxon of the helferi-group on the Banggai Archipelago off the eastern coast of Sulawesi, which administratively is part of the Central Sulawesi Province. Brechlin (2000) reported on a doubtful record of a taxon of the subgenus Antheraeopsis Wood-Mason, 1886 from Sulawesi, which is not included into the number of recognized species herein. Presently seven taxa of the cordifolia-subgroup are recognized for Sulawesi and are mostly considered endemic to Sulawesi and the adjacent islands. Taxa in the cordifolia-subgroup are A. cordifolia Weymer, 1906, A. minahassae Niepelt, 1926, A. viridiscura Holloway, Nässig & Naumann, 1996, A. taripaensis Naumann, Nässig & Holloway, 1996, A. paukstadtorum Naumann, Holloway & Nässig, 1996, A. kageri U. Paukstadt, L. H. Paukstadt & Suhardjono, 1997, and finally A. exspectata Brechlin, 2000. A. cordifolia and A. exspectata are morphologically considerable distinct from all other taxa in the cordifolia-subgroup. The correct application of the taxa in the cordifolia-subgroup needs further investigation. Due to the unusual morphology of the antennae in the female of A. cordifolia, Weymer (1906) proposed the new genus Carmenta, if it is considered to separate A. cordifolia from Antheraea. Unfortunately the name Carmenta is occupied (Carmenta Edwards, 1881, Sesiidae) and therefore not available.
A. exspectata is a highly unusual and mysterious wild silkmoth. Naumann (1995) was the first who mentioned and figured the female in a thesis "female of uncertain identity". The status was not determined by Naumann because the female could not be applied to any of the known taxa from Sulawesi with certainty. At least the three taxa A. viridiscura, A. taripaensis, and A. kageri were described after male specimens only, and the females are still considered to be unknown. Though the females of A. exspectata were collected all over the island in an altitudinal distribution clearly above 900 m, the appropriate male remained unknown for several years. Very recently Brechlin received from Puncak-Palopo, South Sulawesi Province, an unusual male specimen of Antheraea together with two "females of uncertain identity" in the same caught. Despite a clearly sexual dimorphism in the male and female specimens, Brechlin applied the male to the "females of uncertain identity". Both sexes are considered morphologically analogous in some important details. Finally the description of A. exspectata was mainly based on the morphology of the single male specimen. The taxonomic problems within the cordifolia-subgroup were sorry not resolved with the description of this taxon as a new species. The description based on a single male (holotype) and 62 females (paratypes), nothing was known on the variability of the male. The male, which was applied to the "female of uncertain identity" is almost similar A. viridiscura, of which the female remains unknown. In 1995 we already tried to rear the "female of uncertain identity" to investigate its identity, as well as the identity of the unknown appropriate male. Eggs were permanently sent to Germany by local collectors, but the rearing failed. The same negative results were reported from other collectors in Germany. In autumn 1999 the senior author successfully reared this taxon from the egg and finally received a single cocoon; a female emerged in early 2000 after the diapause. Our rearing results sorry do not clarify the question which male belongs to the "female of uncertain identity" and do not resolve any remaining taxonomic problems. Fortunately we are able to describe the unknown preimaginal instars of the "female of uncertain identity". The description of the preimaginal instars temporarily is applied to A. exspectata, but further investigations on the status of A. exspectata are urgently necessary.

Descriptions of the immature stages:
Ovum. Small eggs for a taxon of the genus Antheraea, which are similar those of the taxa of the genus Cricula Walker, 1855. Due to this reason the first shipments of eggs were sent by local collectors in unawareness of its relationship with Antheraea as "eggs of a large Cricula" to Germany. Length of the ovum ca. 2.25 mm, width 2.13 mm and height 1.3 mm, the chorion is 0.025 mm thick, the shape is elongated oval. Microphyle not conspicuous. The coloration outside is mat whitish and even this is extraordinary in the subgenus Antheraea, the inner surface of the egg is glossy white colored. Ovum occasionally covered with a transparent pale yellowish brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate. Chorionic sculpturing not conspicuous, mostly honey-comb shaped and surrounded by each 5-7 aerophyles covered with domes bearing an opening in the apex.
1st instar larva: Larva approximately 4-5 mm long just after hatching from egg. Head capsule glossy light brown, eyes black. Thus far the 1st instar larva of exspectata is the only larva of the cordifolia- and frithi-subgroups known to us without a black colored head capsule and prothoracic shield. Ground coloration of integument pale yellow, including the prothoracic shield. Spiracles, anal plate, anal prolegs, and the fleshy extensions of body supporting scoli are slightly paler colored as body. Thoracic legs black. Abdominal segments laterally soft bluish green. Light ochre colored transverse stripes present between each abdominal segment. Meso- and metathorax, as well as the 1st-7th abdominal segment dorsally with a conspicuous yellowish brown longitudinal line; between subdorsal and supraspiracular rows of scoli an interrupted yellowish brown longitudinal line present. 1st-7th abdominal segment laterally with each two black stripes, of which the posterior is vertically and the anterior inclined with the uppermost end facing cephad. Black stripes less prominent on 1st abdominal segment, and on 8th abdominal segment only an irregular inclined pale brownish black stripe present. Scoli mostly in six or eight longitudinal rows. Prothorax with 6 scoli, dorsal and subdorsal scoli are fused and therefore bear a larger number of bristles, lateral scoli supported by long fleshy extensions of the body. Meso- and metathorax with each 6 scoli supported by conspicuous fleshy extensions of body, ventrolaterally with a reduced scolus each side. 1st, 2nd, and 7th abdominal segment with each 6 scoli, ventrolaterally usually a single bristle present which much likely represents a totally reduced scolus. 3rd-6th abdominal segment with each 6 scoli plus two abdominal prolegs. 8th abdominal segment with 6 scoli, fleshy extensions of body supporting the single middorsal scolus fused but the tips of the scoli still well separated with each the fully number of bristles as in other dorsal scoli. 8th and 9th abdominal segment ventrolaterally with each a single strong bristle which might represents a reduced scoli. 9th abdominal segment with 4 scoli supported by prominent fleshy extensions of the body. Posterior end of the anal plate with 2 scoli. Scoli bear black bristles and mostly a long centered black hair at apex. Particularly exposed scoli which are present on fleshy extensions of the body bear a larger number of white and black bristles. In comparisons with 1st instar larvae of other taxa in Antheraea, the bristles of those of exspectata are generally thicker and more flexible. The 1st instar larvae are living in groups on the underside of the leafs but they are not gregarious.
2nd instar larva: Head capsule light brown, eyes black. Ground coloration of integument ventrally pale yellow, integument of thoracic segments green and of abdominal segments beige, but dorsally and subdorsally green. Abdominal legs pale brown and anal prolegs pale yellow. Fleshy extensions of the body supporting scoli yellowish, as well as the scoli itself. Apices of dorsal scoli of the metathorax and the middorsal fused scolus of 8th abdominal segment, as well as the bases of the dorsal scoli of the prothorax black colored. Thoracic legs black; spiracles yellowish, pale brown bordered. A yellowish supraspiracular line between 1st and 8th abdominal segment present. Bristles brownish black and stronger than in previous instar. Integument mainly at thoracic segments and dorsally at abdominal segments covered with conspicuous tiny bead-like hairs. Petiole of these hairs extremely thin and apices extremely blown up.
3rd instar larva: Head capsule turquoise, dorsally reddish brown speckled, eyes black. Ground coloration of integument green with yellowish pattern mainly at bases of scoli. Fleshy extensions of the body supporting scoli slightly reduced in length. Extensions of the body red colored, extension of the body supporting the fused middorsal scolus of 8th abdominal segment black with a red base. Scoli with reddish brown bristles and a long centered black hair at apex. Morphology of bristles as in previous instar but those of subdorsal scoli much reduced. Pale ochre supraspiracular line present on 1st-9th abdominal segment and on latter fused with the grayish brown border of the anal plate, supraspiracular line dorsally on 1st abdominal segment reddish brown bordered. Prothorax and anal plate pale beige, anal prolegs weak olive-green. Thoracic legs and abdominal prolegs light brown. Integument densely covered with yellowish bead-like hairs. The larva shows in this and following instars a sphinx-like resting position, thoracic legs and occasionally 1st and 2nd pairs of abdominal prolegs are released from substrate.
4th instar larva: Head capsule in area of eyes turquoise colored, otherwise densely reddish brown speckled. Clypeus and frons white, black bordered. Ground coloration of integument green as in previous instar with a yellowish pattern mostly around bases of scoli. Thoracic legs black. Supraspiracular line clearly lighter colored than in previous instar, line now whitish yellow colored. Spiracles colored as supraspiracular line but brown bordered. Prothorax rich yellow, bases of fleshy extensions of body supporting scoli mostly yellow, but the extensions and the scoli itself as in previous instar red colored. Fleshy extension supporting single middorsal fused scolus of 8th abdominal segment clearly enlarged. Short bead-like setae on integument less prominent than in previous instar.
5th instar larva: Coloration and pattern of head capsule as in previous instar. Otherwise larva morphologically clearly distinct from the 4th larval instar, as well as from all other larvae of the genus Antheraea known to us thus far. Prothorax yellow, dorsal scoli of thoracic segments and middorsal single scolus of 8th abdominal segment yellowish green. Integument of thoracic segments and abdominal segments above the supraspiracular yellowish white line olive-brown with a soft purple shimmer. Integument of abdominal segments below the supraspiracular line deep green. Scoli mostly reduced. Dorsal scoli of metathorax and the single middorsal scolus of 8th abdominal segment supported by conspicuous fleshy extensions of the body. Dorsal scoli of thoracic segments and the foremost abdominal segments with strong spines and with a single long black hair in center. Subdorsal and subspiracular scoli of abdominal segments mostly fully reduced and domes dark green or bluish green colored. Anal plate conspicuous elongated, green colored with a yellowish white bordered olive-brown border. Patch on the outside of anal prolegs not present. Anal prolegs green, bordered with a thin black and broad white stripe facing to the 8th abdominal segment. Spiracles brownish, white centered and white bordered. Integument covered with plenty of short bead-like or club-shaped yellowish hairs, of which a few of them are dorsally slightly longer between indentations of segments. An unusual larval morphology in this and the next instar.
6th instar larva Coloration and pattern of head capsule more light-colored than in previous instar, area of eyes brown. Ground coloration of integument above supraspiracular line again peculiarly olive-brown and below supraspiracular line and ventrally green colored. Thus far this combination in the ground coloration of integument is unique in larvae of the genus Antheraea. Prothorax and supraspiracular longitudinal line yellowish green and dorsally irregularly thin brown bordered. Border of anal plate soft brownish purple colored. Triangular patch on the outside of each anal proleg brown, patch with a white stripe at the anterior end. Spiracles very conspicuous black colored and white centered. Subdorsal scoli mostly totally reduced, subspiracular scoli much reduced. Dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax reduced to flat domes with short bristles at apex, otherwise occasionally single long black hairs present. Bristles at posterior end of anal plate slightly reduced. The morphology of the short bead-like yellowish setae changed to longer club-shaped setae with less density. Single longer yellowish hairs present dorsally in the indentations of segments facing cephad. Single mature larva in this rearing only 6 cm long.
Cocoon: Cocoon ovoid in shape, approximately 34 mm long, largest breadth approx. 14 mm. The wall consists of a single layer, wall extremely thin and occasionally perforated. Ground color outer surface mat silver-gray, partly soft golden-yellow. Inner surface glossy pale golden-yellow. Cocoon partly wrapped into leaf. Opening not conspicuous.
Pupa: Female pupa length 24 mm and largest breadth 10 mm. Antennal covers length 7.5 mm and largest breadth 3.0 mm; antennal covers shorter than covers of middle legs. Ground color of the pupa brownish black. Abdominal segments covered with plenty of tiny bristles. Cremaster short and rounded, strong curved spines present facing dorsally for affixing pupa to cocoon. Head with transparent light-detecting 'window' between eye-covers.