List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


(Summary)


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Paukstadt, U. (2000): Anleitung zur richtigen Anwendung von geographischen Koordinaten in entomologischen Beiträgen. - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Suppl. 8: pp. 52-55; 1 fig.

Summary: A guidance on the correct use of geographic coordinates in entomological contributions. - Following the ICZN (1999) an author who establishes a new nominal species-group taxon should publish the full locality (including geographic co-ordinates) concerning the holotype, if they are relevant and known to the author, cf. ICZN (1999) Recommendation 73C.2. Due to some incorrect citations of geographic co-ordinates in entomological contributions in recent years a short guidance on the correct use of co-ordinates is presented. The coordinates latitude and longitude are used to define the position of a point of the terrestrial sphere. The latitude of a point on the Earth is its angular distance north or south of the terrestrial equator. A position north of the terrestrial equator is on a northern latitude, and a position south of the terrestrial equator is on a southern latitude. The northernmost point of the terrestrial sphere is 90° N [North] or 90° northern latitude, while the southernmost point of the terrestrial sphere is 90° S [South], or 90° southern latitude. Likewise the west longitude of a point on the Earth is a measure of an arc of the Earth's equator westward from the Greenwich meridian to the meridian of the point. The westernmost point of the terrestrial sphere is 180° W [West] or 180° western longitude, while the easternmost point of the terrestrial sphere is 180° E [East] or 180° eastern longitude. The 180° meridian might be cited either 180° eastern or 180° western longitude. Erroneous citations of co-ordinates are common in the application of abbreviations and terms, therefore some examples on the correct, as well as on the incorrect use are given below.

incorrect:
23°12.7'E 112°35.8'N; 23.2'N 112.6'E; 23°12.7"N 112°35.8"E; 23°12.7' northern longitude 112°35.8' eastern latitude;
correct:
23°12.7' northern latitude 112°35.8' eastern longitude; 23°12.7'N 112°35.8'E; N23°12.7' E112°35.8'; 23°12'.7N 112°35'.7 E, N23°12.658 E112°35.842 [GPS (global positioning system)]; N Lat. 23° 12.7' E Long. 112° 35.8'; N lat. 23° 12.7' E long. 112° 35.8'; Phi = 23° 12.7' N Lambda = 112° 35.8' E; 23° 12.7' N 112° 35.8' E [grad/minutes]; 23° 12' 42" N 112° 35' 48" E [grad/minutes/seconds]; 23.2° N 112.6° E