List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (2000): Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien einer noch unbeschriebenen Art der Gattung Samia Hübner, 1819 ("1816") von Bali, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Suppl. 8: pp. 41-51; 5 b&w figs., col.-pl. with 11 figs.

Summary: Descriptions of the preimaginal instars of a still unnamed taxon of the genus Samia Hübner, 1819 ("1816") from the island of Bali, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - In 1991 the senior author collected cocoons of this obviously new taxon of the genus Samia Hübner, 1819 ("1816") (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) on the island of Bali, Indonesia for the first time, cf. Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (1992). The populations from Bali were already considered distinct from S. insularis Vollenhoven, 1862 by Paukstadt, U., Peigler & Paukstadt, L. H. (1993) [remarks: in the meantime the populations were described under the name Samia abrerai Naumann & Peigler, 2001]. In 1998 and 1999 some further adults were collected at light on the island of Bali, and the first specimens of this taxon from the island of Java were available from local collectors. The populations from Bali and Java are considered being conspecific and the taxon clearly distinct from S. insularis which inhabits the island of Java. In late 1999 / early 2000 the junior author studied Saturniidae on the islands of Java, Bali and Lombok. More specimens of the genus Samia were collected on the islands of Java and Bali but not on the island of Lombok thus far. As the collecting data might indicate the new taxon of the genus Samia most likely is restricted to a higher altitudinal distribution and its (peculiar?) primary vegetation, while S. insularis was found being rather common in lower altitudes with secondary vegetation. Both taxa came to light sources at different spaces of time, cf. U. Paukstadt & L. H. Paukstadt (2000). In January 2000 the junior author received some eggs of a female which came to light on the island of Bali, Tamblingan Lake, 1050 m altitude. Eggs were sent to Germany and successfully reared indoors by the senior author using privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium, Oleaceae) as foodplant. Although this new taxon remains unnamed we intend to describe and figure the preimaginal instars for the first time and report on some observations on the biology and ecology prior the description of the new species to make the results of our preliminary studies available. Further contributions on the taxa of the genus Samia are in preparation and will be published within a monograph on the Indonesian Saturniidae which is in preparation by us.

Descriptions of immature stages:
Ovum length 1.83 mm, width 1.30 mm and height 1.18 mm; egg shell 0.03 mm thick. Ground coloration of outer surface glossy whitish yellow, partially covered with a translucent ore pale yellowish secretion for affixing egg to substrate; coloration of inner surface matt whitish yellow. Choronic sculpturing conspicuous, almost symmetrically honey-comb shaped, in area of the microphyles less symmetrically. Chorion covered with plenty of tiny depressions each with a funnel-like smaller depression in center. Inner diameter of the outher depression approximately 0.029 mm, of the inner depression approximately 0.007 mm. At the border of the larger depressions each mostly six aerophyles are present. Depressions in the microphyle area show rip-like structures facing inward.
1st instar larvae approximately 3.5 mm long after hatching from egg. Diameter of head capsule 1.10 mm, from glossy auburn to reddish black colored. Main coloration of integument dully brownish black, scoli, bristles, prothoracic shield, thoracic legs, anal prolegs, and anal plate glossy black, abdominal prolegs gray. Generally a very dark colored larva different from those of other taxa in this genus, as far as its larval instars are already known. Spiracles yellowish, an asymmetrical ochre line connecting the subspiracular row of scoli. Scoli slightly prominent, mostly in six longitudinal rows. Excepting thoracic segments with 8 scoli each and 8th abdominal segment with 5 scoli, a single median dorsal scolus present on 8th abdominal segment. 9th abdominal segment with 4 scoli only and posterior end of anal plate with 2 scoli. Scoli bearing mostly 5 slightly bent black spines at apex. Spines of dorsal scoli of prothoracic shield facing cephad. Spines of dorsal scoli more prominent than other. Main coloration of the older larva in this instar slightly brighter with pale yellow ochre or yellowish pattern mostly restricted to the areas between each of the thoracic and abdominal segments. Larva not covered with waxy powder.
2nd instar larvae generally much different from the previous instar. Head capsule glossy black with whitish bristles, diameter of head capsule 1.45 mm. Ground coloration of integument mostly pale yellow, black coloration of prothoracic plate much reduced and not including the dorsal and subdorsal scoli. Anal prolegs and anal plate black, thoracic legs grayish black, prolegs lateral with a horizontal grayish black stripe. Scoli mostly yellowish, subspiracular scoli variable grayish black or glossy black with transparent whitish colored short bristles at apex. Conspicuous longitudinal rows of grayish black blotches on thoracic and abdominal segments. Each segment dorsally, subdorsally and laterally with two blotches. Black spiracles brown centered. Larva not covered with waxy powder.
3rd instar larvae head capsule glossy black, diameter 1.95 mm. Larva not considerably different from the previous instar, solely the black pattern more prominent. Ground coloration of integument pale yellow with arrangement of black pattern as described for previous instar. Pairs of subdorsal and lateral black blotches more diagonally than horizontally arranged. Lowermost blotches at the posterior end of each segment. Thoracic legs and horizontal stripe on the outside of abdominal prolegs black. Anal plate and anal prolegs each with a large glossy black patch, yellowish bordered. Subspiracular scoli of thoracic and abdominal segments, as well as scoli ventrolaterally on thoracic segments glossy black. Other scoli pale yellowish with translucent bristles. Spiracles brownish black, yellow centered. Larva not covered with wax. Larval morphology mostly similar those of S. yayukae from the island of Timor.
4th instar larvae much different from the previous instar. Head capsule yellow with black eyes, diameter 2.46 mm. Ground coloration of integument and most of the scoli white. Ventrolateral scoli of thoracic segments and subspiracular scoli of abdominal segments glossy black with white apex, apices occasionally covered with wax. Spiracles black. Thoracic legs and abdominal prolegs yellowish, anal prolegs yellow with a black blotch in center. Anal plate and 9th abdominal segment dorsally yellow. Black blotches on cuticle arranged as in previous instar but blotches with smaller diameter. Cuticle slightly covered with whitish waxy powder, except the black and yellow pattern, which is without wax. Much wax present on dorsal and subdorsal scoli. Bristles of scoli reduced in length and number.
5th instar larvae not much different from previous instar. Head capsule yellow with black eyes, diameter 3.4 mm. Ground coloration of integument whitish, occasionally pale bluish green. Thoracic legs and abdominal prolegs yellow. Anal prolegs, anal plate and dorsal area of 9th abdominal segment intensive yellow (likely a danger color?). Black pattern more reduced in size and blotches even occasionally absent. Scoli mostly colored as body. Ventrolateral scoli of thoracic segments whitish but with conspicuous glossy black bases. Spiracles black. Mature larva covered with a whitish waxy powder mostly on dorsal and subdorsal scoli. Mature larva in this rearing approximately 4.5 cm long. The emerged single female was slightly smaller than average.
Cocoon length 3.6 cm and largest diameter 1.8 cm, wall consists of two layers. Outer layer irregularly following the structure of the leafes. Ground coloration outside matt or glossy ochre and inside glossy yellowish. Opening at the uppermost end of the cocoon.
Pupa in the female length 23 mm and largest diameter 10.5 mm. Head, thoracic segment, 1st till 4th abdominal segment, and cremaster dorsally dark brown, otherwise ochre or yellowish colored. Antennal covers length 8.7 mm and largest breadth 3.2 mm. Antennal covers shorter than covers of middle pair of thoracic legs. Spiracles conspicuous, reddish brown colored. Cremaster without spines at apex.