List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT
Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (2000): Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Antheraea (Antheraea) kelimutuensis U. Paukstadt, L. H. Paukstadt & Suhardjono, 1997 von Flores, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Suppl. 8: pp. 6-21; 6 b&w figs, col.-pl. with 11 figs.
Summary: Description of the preimaginal instars of Antheraea (Antheraea) kelimutuensis U. Paukstadt, L. H. Paukstadt & Suhardjono, 1997 from the island of Flores, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). -
Antheraea (Antheraea) kelimutuensis U. Paukstadt, L. H. Paukstadt & Suhardjono, 1997 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) represents a taxon of the frithi-subgroup (sensu Nässig 1991) of the mylitta/frithi-group (sensu U. Paukstadt, Brosch & L. H. Paukstadt 1999). We have to point out that collective-group names used within this contribution were established tentative for certain assemblages of taxonomic convenience only. They do not comply with the requirements for a valid description according to the provisions of the ICZN (1999). In the application of group-names we mostly follow Nässig (1991) with minor modifications by us. Taxa of the frithi-subgroup (sensu Nässig 1991) belong to the subgenus Antheraea Hübner, 1819 ("1816") of the nominate genus. In May 2000 we received from local collectors two batches of eggs of A. kelimutuensis, which were obtained from two females, which came to light in Ruteng env., 750 and 855 m above sea level, Manggarai District, island of Flores, eastern Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tanggara Timur Province, NTT), Indonesia. The habitat at the collecting place consists of secondary monsoon forest with scattered villages. A. kelimutuensis was successfully reared by the senior author using Himalaya birch (Betula utilis, Betulaceae) as substitute foodplant. Some very interesting rearing observations on the ecology and biology of this taxon are recorded. For the first time the preimaginal instars of A. kelimutuensis are described and figured in color. No taxonomic changes are proposed.
Rearing records and rearing observations
The eggs of the first female which came to light were laid on the 04./05. V. 2000 and immediately sent to Germany by Air Mail Express letter. The first larva hatched on the 17. V. 2000. Larvae did not completely eat the egg shells. The first moulting took place on the 25. V., 2nd moulting 31. V., 3rd moulting 07. VI., and 4th moulting 16. VI. 2000 (the data of the first larva of the rearing no. I is given in each case). The larvae rarely eat the cuticle after moulting. The first cocoon was spun on the 01. VII. 2000, first larva pupating approximately on the 06. VII. 2000. Mature larva of very large size, approximately 10-12 cm long. Largest diameter of the head capsules in 1st till 5th larval instars (growing rate in per cent in rounded brackets) 1.55 mm, 2.25 mm (45.2 per cent), 3.45 mm (53.3 per cent), 4.90 mm (42.0 per cent), and ca. 7 mm (42.9 per cent), the last measurement was taken from the living larva and therefore might be less accurate. Fife larval instars were recorded. Larvae seem to be polyphagous. Several foodplants of different families were offered and accepted in 1st larval instar, but finally the rearing was carried out using birch (Betula utilis, Betulaceae) as foodplant.
Description of the immature stages:
Ovum extraordinary large, which resembles those of taxa of the genus Attacus Linnaeus, 1767. Length approximately 3.15-3.4 mm, width approx. 2.8-3.0 mm and height approx. 2.1-2.2 mm, the chorion is approx. 0.05 mm thick, shape elongated flat oval, not ovoid. The microphyle area is approx. 0.3 mm in diameter, conspicuous, with less surface structure than other parts of the egg, only one funnel-like opening was found. The ground coloration of the outer surface is ochre (visible only in the microphyle area), other parts brownish or reddish brown, the inner surface of the egg is whitish colored. One flat side of the ovum is covered with a reddish brown or black secretion for affixing egg to substrate. Chorionic sculpturing conspicuous. Chorion covered with plenty of tiny aerophyle crowns, which are placed around irregular shaped depressions in the chorion. Diameter of the depressions 0.017 to 0.057 mm. Diameter of the crowns 0.021 to 0.026 mm, diameter of the aerophyle (upper diameter of the opening) 0.003 to 0.004 mm. Depth of the aerophyle from the tips of the crown to the bottom approx. 0.039 mm, crenatures approx. 0.004 mm long. REM-examinations of 12 taxa of the genus Antheraea were carried out thus far and much distinct structures of undamaged chorion surfaces observed being present. Presently it is too early to discuss whether or not comparisons of the distinct surface structures can be useful for taxonomic studies. Much more material is needed to be examined.
1st instar larva approximately 10 mm long after hatching from egg. Head capsule glossy black with white bristles, clypeus white and labrum brown, diameter of head capsule 1.55 mm. Thoracic legs black with reddish claws, black blotch at the outside of each anal proleg, anal plate including scoli at posterior edge black, transverse black stripe at the outside of each abdominal proleg, prothoracic shield dully black. Ground coloration of integument yellowish. Whitish yellow colored transverse stripe present between each abdominal segment. Dorsally and subdorsally each segment with two yellowish brown transverse stripes of which each one is present before and after transverse rows of scoli. These stripes are laterally connected with black markings on 1st to 8th abdominal segments. Each abdominal segment laterally two black markings present of which the posterior is vertically and the anterior inclined with the uppermost end facing cephad. Black markings less prominent on 8th abdominal segment. Scoli mostly in six or eight longitudinal rows, all scoli supported by fleshy extensions of body. Prothorax with 6 scoli, either the dorsal and subdorsal scoli or the subdorsal and subspiracular scoli are fused and therefore bear a larger number of bristles. Meso- and metathorax with each 8 scoli of which the lowermost are much reduced. 1st, 2nd and 7th abdominal segment with each 6 scoli, ventrolaterally usually a single bristle present which much likely represents a totally reduced scolus. 3rd to 6th abdominal segment with each 6 scoli plus two abdominal prolegs. 8th abdominal segment with 6 scoli, fleshy extensions of body supporting the single middorsal scolus fused but the tips of the scoli itself well separated with each the fully number of bristles as in other dorsal scoli of abdominal segments. 8th and 9th abdominal segment ventrolaterally with each a single strong bristle which might represents a reduced scoli. 9th abdominal segment with 4 scoli of which the lowermost scoli are supported by particularly prominent fleshy extensions of the body. Posterior end of the anal plate with 2 black colored scoli. Fleshy extensions of body supporting scoli particularly prominent on thoracic and anal segments. Scoli bear translucent brownish white bristles and occasionally a long centered translucent brownish white bristle at apex. Particularly exposed scoli, which are present on thoracic and anal segments bear a larger number of white bristles. 1st instar larvae not gregarious but they are living in groups on the underside of the leafs of the foodplant.
2nd instar larva head capsule pale brown, eyes black, bristles white, clypeus transparent white, basal segment of the antenna white. Diameter of head capsule 2.25 mm. Thoracic legs, abdominal prolegs, border of anal plate, and triangular patch on the outside of each anal proleg pale or dark brown. Prothoracic shield black, dorsally interrupted. Spiracles black, yellowish bordered. Ground coloration of integument just after moulting pale yellowish green, later deep green. Prothorax and anal prolegs except their triangular patches yellowish. Weak yellowish lateral line connecting the subdorsal row of abdominal scoli. Scoli are supported by fleshy extensions of body. Subspiracular extensions of prothorax, dorsal extensions of meso- and metathorax, the dorsal single extension of the 8th abdominal segment conspicuous. Dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax and of the 8th abdominal segment black colored, occasionally those of the 1st abdominal segment too. Both scoli at the posterior end of the anal plate brown and all scoli of the prothorax yellowish colored. Remaining scoli orange, including the apices of the extensions of body, which supporting the orange scoli. Bases of scoli mostly yellowish. Scoli bear strong pale or dark brown colored bristles at apex. Occasionally a longer centered hair present at the apex of scoli. Cuticle covered with plenty of tiny club-shaped white hairs. Longer hairs which are facing cephad are dorsally present at anterior ends of abdominal segments plus each one longer white hair between dorsal and subdorsal rows of scoli.
3rd instar larva head capsule including frons and clypeus pale ochre, head capsule with white bristles, diameter of head capsule 3.45 mm. Ground coloration of integument green, prothorax, abdominal legs and anal segments more yellowish green or yellowish; thoracic legs brown. Triangular patch on the outside of each anal proleg and the border of the anal plate are dark brown colored. Triangular patch connected with the supraspiracular line, which is present on 2nd to 9th abdominal segments. Supraspiracular line mostly yellowish colored, towards the anal segments brown. Line interrupted by silvery colored extensions of body supporting subdorsal row of scoli. Spiracles black, yellow centered and yellow bordered. Prothoracic scoli, subdorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax, and the subspiracular scoli reduced to transparent turquoise colored scoli-domes, which are not supported by extensions of body. The thoracic scoli bear each 4 or 5 strong bristles and each a slender black hair which upper part is white colored. Middorsal scolus of the 8th abdominal segment and the lateral scoli of the prothorax are supported by fleshy extension of body. Dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax are supported by short extensions of body which apices occasionally are silvery colored. All dorsal scoli of 1st-7th abdominal segments and most of the subdorsal scoli of the 2nd till 7th abdominal segments are supported by silvery colored fleshy extensions of body. We observed a considerable variation in the number of subdorsal silvery colored extensions of body supporting scoli. In the case that the subdorsal extension of body supporting the scoli is present, the extension is silvery colored, or, vice versa, scoli which are not supported by a fleshy extension of body are lacking this silvery "patch". We already reported on silvery extensions of body supporting scoli in larvae of A. pasteuri Bouvier, 1928 (or another closely related taxon from Lombok), cf. L. H. Paukstadt & U. Paukstadt (2000). A further report is by Naumann & Nässig (2000) in larvae of most likely the same taxon from the island of Bali. We observed that the silvery colored extensions of body are white colored just after moulting, a few hours after the moulting the coloration turns silvery. Presently we are unable to provide with further informations on the morphology and the ecology of the silvery extensions of body. White club-shaped hairs as in previous instar are present but they are mixed with several more slender white hairs. All scoli bear a slender centered black hair at apex, which upper part is white colored. Anal prolegs and prolegs bear brownish or black colored bristles. Further studies on the morphology and ecology of the observed silvery colored extensions of body supporting scoli are urgently necessary.
4th instar larva diameter of head capsule 4.90 mm. Morphology of the larva mostly as in previous instar. Short club-shaped white hairs more slender and less club-shaped, subspiracularly and ventrally even curled. Subdorsal silvery extensions of body supporting scoli more common. Conspicuous long white hairs dorsally and subdorsally on abdominal segments, facing cephad.
5th instar larva diameter of head capsule approximately 7 mm. Morphology of the larva mostly as in previous instar. Short white hairs less conspicuous. Groups of conspicuous short white hairs are dorsally present at the anterior ends of the 1st till 7th abdominal segments. Subspiracular scoli are further reduced but bristles and hairs present as in previous instar. Length of the mature larva under rearing conditions about 10 to 12 cm.
Pupa in the male length 40 mm, largest diameter 28 mm. Color almost black. Cremaster rounded with two rows of slightly curved spines, each approximately 0.6 mm long. Uppermost row of spines facing ventrally and lowermost row facing dorsally, tips of both rows of spines overlapping (locking mechanism to fix pupa in the cocoon. Pupa dorsally covered with approx. 0.5 mm long soft bristles. Antennal covers length 11.5 mm and breadth 6.8 mm, same length than covers of forelegs. Short tubercles dorsally on metathorax and 1st and 2nd abdominal segments analogous dorsal scoli of larvae.
Cocoon length approximately 4.5 to 5.5 cm and largest diameter 2.5 cm. The cocoon is fitted to a twig and covered with one or two leafs. The upper part of the cocoon is peaked and the bottom is rounded. No opening present through which the adult may emerge. Wall strong, reddish brown colored. All parts which are connected to the leaf are covered with a white powder (wax?), including the inner surface of the leaf itself.