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html">Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (2000): Taxonomische Änderungen bei der helferi-Gruppe der Gattung Antheraea Hübner, 1819 ("1816") von Jawa, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Suppl. 7: pp. 50-56; 2 figs.

Summary: Taxonomic changes in the helferi-group of the genus Antheraea Hübner, 1819 ("1816") from Java, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - This contribution to knowledge the Indonesian wild silkmoths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) particularly deals with the taxonomic status of the Javanese Antheraea (Antheraea) imperator Watson, 1913 stat. rev. The closely related species A. helferi Moore, 1859 is distributed from India to Borneo and Indonesia (Sumatra and Kalimantan). From Borneo the subspecies borneensis Moore, 1892 was described. It still has to be determined whether borneensis represents a junior synonym of helferi or the name borneensis even might be attributed to the wrong taxon by later authors. Watson (1913) described Antherea [sic!] imperator from the island of Java. The specific status was accepted by Van Eecke (1921), Seitz (1928), and Leefmans (1930). The latter author was the first who (accidently?) cited imperator as a subspecies of helferi in the explanation of figures, although specific rank was used within the text. The subspecific status was copied by Toxopeus (1940). Thus far all authors attributed the Javanese taxon imperator to helferi, except Bouvier (1930), who described a new taxon from the island of Java: Antheraea helferi javanensis, which is considered being a junior primary homonym of frithi javanensis Bouvier, 1928 and therefore permanently invalid. Jolly et al. (1979), Jolly (1980) and Gardiner (1982) cited javanensis in fully species rank. Jolly (1980) erroneously remarked that imperator is almost identical with A. compta Rothschild, 1899 and A. assamensis (Helfer, 1837). The latter two species neither belong to the same species-group as helferi, the helferi-group (sensu Nässig 1991) nor to the same subgenus Antheraea Hübner, 1819 ("1816"). Allen (1981) was the first author, who treated imperator as a junior synonym of helferi, which was followed by all subsequent authors, e.g. Holloway in Barlow (1982), Lampe (1984, 1985), Holloway (1987), and Nässig et al. (1996). Paukstadt & Brosch (1996) finally remarked that the taxonomic status of imperator has to be finally investigated.
In 1974 we visited the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB/Bogor) for the first time and located a small series of Javanese imperator much distinct in coloration from true helferi, but sorry no females were available for comparisons. After 25 years of intensive collecting we received some males and two females of the Javanese populations of helferi sensu lato. The series of actually the Javanese imperator was determined being different in the coloration in both sexes from true helferi. Furthermore clear differences in the male genitalia morphology are present between the populations of imperator from Java and the populations of helferi and related taxa from the remaining distribution area of the helferi-group. Due to morphologically differences a revision of the status of the Javanese populations of the helferi-group herewith is considered: Antheraea (Antheraea) imperator Watson, 1913 stat. rev. Other closely related taxa in the helferi-group are A. rosemariae Holloway, Nässig & Naumann, 1995 from Sulawesi, A. halconensis Paukstadt & Brosch, 1996 from the Philippines, A. hollowayi Nässig & Naumann, 1998 from Seram, and A. cihangiri Naumann & Nässig, 1998 from the Banggai Archipelago. The taxonomic status of the latter has to be determined with more material, because the description was based on a singleton very similar the Sulawesian rosemariae.