List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (2000): Die Präimaginalstadien von Actias isis (Sonthonnax, 1897 ["1899"]) von Sulawesi, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Suppl. 7: pp. 37-46; col.-pl. with 12 figs.

Summary: The life-history of Actias isis (Sonthonnax, 1897 ["1899"]) from Sulawesi, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - In the following contribution to knowledge the Southeast Asian wild silkmoth (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) the preimaginal instars of Actias isis (Sonthonnax, 1897 ["1899"]), which is an endemic on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia are described and figured in color. A. isis is a member of the A. maenas species-group (sensu Nässig 1994), which contains the following species: A. maenas Doubleday, 1847, A. ignescens (Moore, 1877), A. philippinica Nässig & Treadaway, 1997, A. isis (Sonthonnax, 1897 ["1899"]), and A. groenendaeli Roepke, 1954. The preimaginal instars of A. isis are compared to those of A. maenas Doubleday, 1847 from India, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia (cf. Lampe 1983, Nässig & Peigler 1984 and L. H. Paukstadt & U. Paukstadt unpublished), and Actias groenendaeli Roepke, 1954 from the island of Timor (cf. U. Paukstadt & L. H. Paukstadt 1993, 1995). In recent years we received several batches of eggs of A. isis, which were obtained from females which came to light. A. isis was repeatedly successfully reared by the senior author under laboratory conditions. Sweetgum (Liquidambar sp.), oak (Quercus sp.) and privet (Ligustrum sp.) were accepted as substitute food plants among many other. Rearing observations on the biology and ecology of this species were recorded and color pictures of the preimaginal instars were taken. The preimaginal instars of A. isis from Sulawesi were already described and figured in color by Naumann (1995) in a thesis. Though copies were available in bookshops at a later date, this publication is considered being not available, cf. ICZN (1999) Art. 8 and Art. 9. Therefore we intend to publish the descriptions of the preimaginal instars of A. isis and provide comparisons to some of the closely related species of the maenas-group, those are A. groenendaeli and A. maenas. No taxonomic changes are proposed.

Descriptions of immature stages:
Ovum length approximately 3.0 mm, width 2.6 mm and height 1.8 mm; chorion approximately 0.05 mm thick. The coloration of the shell is ochre, irregularly grayish brown patched. Ovum partially covered with reddish brown secretion, which is used to fix the ovum to substrate. Chorionic sculpturing asymmetrically reticulate, diameter of meshes 0.015-0.03 mm. Coloration of the inner shell white with irregular brown patches.
1st instar larva approximately 7 mm long after hatching from egg. Head black, in groenendaeli glossy reddish brown and in maenas black. Main coloration of fresh hatched larva mostly black, after a few days the coloration changes to orange, accept of 3rd and 4th abdominal segments which remain black, the 1st till 4th abdominal segments are dorsally grayish colored in groenendaeli and black colored in maenas. The main coloration and pattern of the 1st instar larva is clear distinct in the three closely related species: isis, maenas and groenendaeli. Prothoracic plate, anal plate, and thoracic legs black, prolegs black, thoracic and abdominal segments ventrally mostly black. Scoli mostly in six longitudinal rows, except the single median scolus dorsally on 8th abdominal segment. Prothorax and 9th abdominal segment with four rows of scoli only. Lateral scoli on prothorax, dorsal scoli on meso- and metathorax and single median dorsal scolus longer than other scoli, subdorsal scoli shorter than dorsal and subspiracular scoli. In groenendaeli the scoli are much longer. Mostly 6 to 10 radial short white primary setae on scoli present, subdorsal scoli with approximately 3 radial setae only. Scoli mostly either with a long hair or strong bristle arising from center.
2nd instar larva main coloration pale green, with a prominent yellowish green line connecting subspiracular orange colored scoli. Dorsal and subspiracular scoli orange, with a yellowish base on meso- and metathorax, all subdorsal scoli and dorsal scoli of prothorax yellowish. Middorsal scolus of 8th abdominal segment, and scoli of meso- and metathorax enlarged, slightly smaller than in groenendaeli, but larger as in maenas. Subdorsal scoli much reduced, smaller than in maenas. Subdorsal scoli mostly bear a single white bristle only. Bristles of other scoli mostly black, bristles of prolegs white. Apex of middorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment and of dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax black. Prothoracic plate reduced to two black blotches (imitation of eyes, snakehead mimikry?), which are present in maenas but not in groenendaeli. Prolegs black with brownish orange bases, and thoracic legs black with brownish bases. Head capsule brown. Cuticle with irregular prominent white granulations, each bearing a single seta.
3rd instar larva with minor differences to those of previous instar. Main coloration pale green with a prominent yellowish green subspiracular line. Irregular tiny white granulation still present, hair bases larger than in previous instar, spiracles whitish. Scoli mostly with yellowish apex, except dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax and middorsal scolus of the 8th abdominal segment, which are orange colored with a black base. Subdorsal scoli further reduced but still present. Patch on the outside of each anal proleg black with posterior edge reddish brown, in groenendaeli yellowish with posterior edge black and in maenas light brown. Anal plate black, laterally yellowish bordered, thoracic legs black. Head capsule dark brown, laterally black, with paler frons and clypeus. Black spines at apex of scoli mostly reduced in number and length, but still prominent on meso- and metathorax.
4th instar larva generally not much different from previous instar. Ground coloration yellowish green, subspiracular stripe and white granulations present, in maenas more intensified and in groenendaeli almost disappeared. Head dark brown with paler frons and clypeus. Spiracles whitish. Scoli as in previous instar but completely yellowish colored. Dorsal scoli still prominent, other scoli much reduced, in maenas scoli are slightly more reduced. Head capsule laterally black, thoracic legs black, posterior edge of anal prolegs black with strong brown bristles. Anal plate with orange patch and covered with black granulation each with a single seta, anal plate in groenendaeli with small black spots each with a single seta and in maenas dark reddish black. A. groenendaeli dorsally and laterally with a black-red-yellow colored ring between abdominal segments 1 and 2 (located at posterior edge of 1st abdominal segment), which is absent in isis and maenas.
5th instar larva main coloration yellowish green, prothoracic plate white with two black imitated 'eyes' as in 2nd instar, which are absent in groenendaeli and maenas. Subdorsal scoli nearly totally reduced, colored as body accept those of thoracic scoli which are black. Complete dorsal scoli and most of the subspiracular scoli black with prominent light brown bristles at apex of dorsal scoli and those of the prothorax. Anal prolegs laterally black with strong brown bristles at posterior edge. Thoracic legs reddish brown; head capsule as in previous instar. Anal plate with a conspicuous turquoise bordered orange patch which bears tiny black tubercles each with a white hair in center, pattern not present in groenendaeli. Yellowish stripes are present in maenas vertically between each abdominal segment, those are not present in groenendaeli and isis. Mature larva approximately 12 cm long.
Cocoon irregular in shape, wall more or less perforated, with exit opening at anterior end. Coloration first whitish, later yellowish or golden. Length approximately 5-7 cm and largest width approximately 2.5-3 cm.
Pupa length 4 to 5 cm and largest width 2 cm, main coloration black. Antennal covers in both sexes shorter than covers of middle and hind legs. Antennal covers of male pupa approximately length 12.5 mm and largest width 5.5 mm, of female length 11.0 mm and largest width 4.1 mm. Head with transparent light-detecting 'window' between eye covers. Cremaster with hooked spines for affixing pupa to cocoon.