List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT
Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (2000): Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Antheraea (Antheraea) pasteuri Bouvier, 1928 [oder eines anderen nah verwandten Taxons] von Lombok, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Galathea - Berichte des Kreises Nürnberger Entomologen eV (Nürnberg), Suppl. 7: pp. 7-18; col.-pl. with 11 figs.
Summary: The life-history of Antheraea (Antheraea) pasteuri Bouvier, 1928 [or another closely related taxon] from Lombok, Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - In the following contribution on knowledge to Southeast Asian wild silkmoths for the first time the preimaginal instars of Antheraea (Antheraea) pasteuri Bouvier, 1928 from the island of Lombok, Indonesia are described and figured. The determination of this populations is preliminary, further investigations might reveal that the populations from Lombok not belong to pasteuri but to a closely related taxon. . pasteuri is a member of the frithi-subgroup (sensu Nässig 1991) of the mylitta/frithi-group (sensu Paukstadt, Brosch & Paukstadt, 1999). On the islands of Java and Bali, and on the western and eastern Lesser Sunda Islands several similar taxa of the frithi-subgroup are distributed, which are temporarily included in the same species-complex of the frithi-subgroup. The following names are present in the jana-complex: A. jana (Stoll, 1782), A. surakarta Moore, 1862, which is considered being a nomen nudum, A. surakarta Moore, 1892 syn. nov. of A. jana (Stoll, 1782), A. pasteuri Bouvier, 1928, and A. niepelti Bouvier, 1928, the latter is considered being a nomen nudum. A further taxon of the jana-complex from the island of Sumbawa, western Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia is described as a new species by Brechlin, Pasewalk (description in preparation). A revision of the Jawanese taxa of the frithi-subgroup is urgently necessary and in preparation by us. Presently A. pasteuri is considered by us to be a highly variable moth, variable in its habitus, coloration, wing pattern and genitalia morphology as well.
In January 2000 we received a few eggs of A. pasteuri from a female which came to light on the island of Lombok, northern slope of Mt. Rinjani, 510 m altitude. The eggs were sent to Germany. For the first time A. pasteuri from Lombok was successfully reared by the senior author under laboratory conditions using evergreen oak as foodplant; other foodplants were accepted by the larvae. Rearing observations on the biology and ecology were recorded and pictures of the preimaginal instars were taken. No taxonomic changes are proposed in this article. A separate contribution on the status of the taxa of the frithi-subgroup from the Greater Sunda Islands and the Lesser Sunda Islands is in preparation by us (U. Paukstadt et al.).
Descriptions of the immature stages:
Ovum length approximately 2.6-2.7 mm, width 2.25 mm and height 1.65 mm, thickness of chorion 0.02 mm. The shape of the ovum is like an oval lentil. Coloration light beige with two brown rings extending around greatest circumference. Each ring ca. 0.14 mm thick, the distances between both rings are 0.16 mm at the two longest sides and 0.45 mm at the shortest sides of the egg. Ovum occasionally covered with light brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate. Chorionic sculpturing not conspicuous, unsymmetrically reticulate with variable diameters of meshes.
1st instar larva approximately 6-7 mm long just after hatching from egg. Head capsule glossy black, diameter of head capsule 1.3 mm. Ground coloration of integument yellowish. Each segment with three vertical brownish green stripes. One small stripe at the anterior end of each segment, broader stripes at each side of vertical rows of scoli. The latter connecting black blotches laterally at the 1st till 7th abdominal segments. Prothoracic shield, thoracic legs, anal plate and triangular patch on the outside of each anal proleg black. Prolegs colored as body but lighter. Scoli mostly in six or eight longitudinal rows, prothorax with 6 scoli, meso- and metathorax with each 8 scoli, 1st and 2nd abdominal segment with each 6 scoli but ventrolaterally each side a strong single bristle of a most probably totally reduced scolus present, 3rd till 6th abdominal segments with each 6 scoli plus each two prolegs, 7th abdominal segment with 6 scoli plus ventrolaterally each side with a strong single bristle, 8th abdominal segment with 5 scoli plus ventrolaterally each side with a strong single bristle (the two dorsal scoli are fused at their bases but the tips are still well separated), 9th abdominal segment with 4 scoli, and the posterior edge of the anal plate with 2 scoli. Scoli mostly on fleshy extensions of body. Fleshy extensions of body supporting scoli are more prominent laterally on prothorax and 9th abdominal segment, dorsally on 8th abdominal segment, and of all thoracic scoli. Scoli bearing mostly 5-6 translucent yellow bristles at apex with a single long hair arising from center, the prominent scoli of the prothorax and the 8th abdominal segment bearing 10-15 bristles, in the latter the higher number of bristles might be resulted due to the fusion of scoli. Bristles on the subspiracular scoli at the posterior edge of the anal plate longer than other.
2nd instar larva head capsule dark brown, partly black, frons and clypeus lighter, diameter of head capsule 1.9 mm. Ground coloration green, bases of scoli yellow, tips of scoli orange; except scoli dorsally on prothorax, which are yellow. Median caudal scolus of 8th abdominal segment and dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax occasionally with black apices. Thoracic legs black and brown, prolegs yellowish green with a horizontal black stripe each, anal prolegs laterally with a black triangular patch brownish bordered. Prothoracic shield with two kidney-shaped black blotches. A yellowish line connecting subdorsal scoli on abdominal segments and continued on the outer border of the anal plate as usual for the nominotypical subgenus. Spiracles mostly black, except those of prothorax and 8th abdominal segment which are weak orange colored. Integument dorsally at thoracic segments covered with many small club-shaped white hairs. Longer club-shaped hairs are mostly dorsally present facing cephad, hairs shorter than scoli. On each abdominal segment a single club-shaped white hair is present between dorsal and subdorsal scoli facing cephad. Scoli of the type 'Sternwarze' = 'star wart'. Dorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax and single dorsal scolus of 8th abdominal segment larger than other. Other dorsal scoli of abdominal segments larger than subdorsal and subspiracular scoli. Bristles shorter than in previous instar, mostly brownish or black colored.
3rd instar larva head capsule black, frons and clypeus lighter, diameter of head capsule 2.9-3.0 mm. Ground color of integument as in previous instar with a yellow longitudinal line between subdorsal scoli and spiracles. Thoracic legs black, prolegs yellowish with black bristles on enlarged black warts, anal plate yellowish green with a white stripe towards the brown colored anal plate border. Patches laterally on the outside of each anal proleg dark brown, anterior with a white stripe. Morphology of dorsal scoli and bristles as in previous instar. Subdorsal scoli slightly reduced and orange colored as in dorsal scoli, bristles reduced, mostly only one long centered hair present. Subspiracular scoli purple colored and slightly reduced, bristles longer as in previous instar and black colored. Spiracles black, small white bordered. Integument covered with plenty of small club-shaped white hairs. Club-shaped long white hairs present as in previous instar.
4th instar larva much different from previous instar. Head capsule dark brown, diameter 4.1 mm. Integument yellowish green with a yellow longitudinally lateral line at abdominal segments. Thoracic legs dark brown, prolegs green with black bristles on black warts (enlarged hair bases), anal prolegs laterally with a black triangular patch, anterior with a white stripe. Anal plate green with brown border. Spiracles mostly black, orange spiracles present at prothorax and 8th abdominal segment. Dorsal scoli much reduced, as well as the bristles. Subdorsal scoli highly reduced on abdominal segments, bristles mostly absent on abdominal segments. Subspiracular scoli much reduced, long black bristles and a long centered black hair still present. Short club-shaped hairs present as in previous instar. Longer white hairs facing cephad not club-shaped anymore. A single larva (only one of ten larvae) bears at the right side subdorsally at the 2nd abdominal segment a much prominent and conspicuous fleshy extension of the body supporting a black scolus. The extension is translucent silver colored with reddish golden sides. Larvae much variable in this instar. Most of the larvae already show characters as described above, which are commonly characters of 5th instar larvae only. A few larvae show those of 4th instar, which are known for other species in this subgroup, with orange scoli on thoracic segments and 8th abdominal segment, other dorsal scoli purple. One larva left dorsal scolus on mesothorax missing.
5th instar larva as usual not much different from previous instar but a few differences present to distinguish larvae of both instars. Head capsule light brown, diameter approximately 6.5 mm. Ground coloration as in previous instar, laterally with a yellowish longitudinal line on abdominal segments. Dark brown triangular patch on anal prolegs and brown border of anal plate whitish bordered. Spiracles mostly black, yellowish bordered and yellow centered; spiracles of 8th abdominal segment brown, yellow centered. The morphology of the short club-shaped white setae now change to longer thin white hairs. The dorsal long white hairs, which are facing cephad are longer than in previous instar. Dorsal scoli of thoracic segments and of 8th abdominal segment much reduced. Further differences to larvae of previous instar were not observed. In this winter rearing the mature larva was about 7 cm long.
Remarks: A few caterpillar did duplicate the 4th larval instar, which resulted finally in 6th larval instars. The 5th and 6th larval instars were found to be not distinct.
Cocoon ovoid in shape, pale silver-gray colored with a soft peduncle to fix cocoon to twig. Wall soft with at least two well separated layers. The outer layer is fixed to the twig by a soft peduncle. Length of the part of the peduncle which is not attached to the twig ca. 10 mm, length attached to substrate 40 mm, width of the flat and soft peduncle ca. 5 mm. Reared cocoons partly wrapped in leaf and/or mounted into corner of the breeding cage. Cocoon inside glossy beige. Reared cocoons length ca. 35-40 mm and width 15-17 mm.
Pupa dark brown or black colored. Male reared pupa approximately 26 mm long and largest width 13 mm. Antennal covers length 8.5 mm and largest width 4.0 mm. Antennal covers shorter than covers of fore legs and approximately the same length as covers of middle legs. Pupa dorsally covered with plenty of tiny brown bristles. Strong bristles at rounded cremaster facing dorsally or they are even hooked for affixing pupa to cocoon. Head with transparent white light detecting 'window' above eye-covers.