List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT
Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (1998): Cricula trifenestrata cameronensis n. subsp., eine neue Unterart der Gattung Cricula Walker 1855 aus West Malaysia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 108 (4): pp. 129-141; col.-pl. with 8 figs., 7 b&w figs.
Summary: A new taxon of the genus Cricula Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is described from Malaysia: Cricula trifenestrata cameronensis subsp. nov. [remarks: presently this taxon is elevated to fully species rank]. C. trifenestrata cameronensis subsp. nov. was given a toponimic name referred to the collecting place, the Cameron Highlands in West Malaysia. The new subspecies is known from the Cameron Highlands only. We have to point out that C. trifenestrata cameronensis subsp. nov. likely is distributed throughout Peninsular Malaysia but the exact range has to remain unknown. It might be even not impossible that two subspecies of C. trifenestrata (Helfer, 1837) occur in West Malaysia, one lowland taxon conspecific with C. trifenestrata javana Watson, 1913 and the new subspecies restricted to the highlands only. Larvae and cocoons of C. trifenestrata javana repeatedly were collected in West Malaysia (cf. Nässig 1995, Nässig et al. 1996) but the conspicuous green coloration of the larvae was never observed thus far. Further studies on the distribution ranges of both taxa are needed. Due to the large overal similarity and individual variability the external morphology and the male genitalia do not offer reliable characters to identify C. trifenestrata cameronensis subsp. nov. The new subspecies can more easy distinguished from closely related taxa of the trifenestrata species-group (sensu Nässig 1989) by comparisons of their preimaginal instars. There are some significant and reliable differences in the preimaginal instars present between C. trifenestrata cameronensis subsp. nov. and the nominotypical C. trifenestrata trifenestrata (India), C. trifenestrata treadawayi Nässig, 1989 (Philippines), C. trifenestrata javana (Java and Sumatra), and C. trifenestrata kransi Jurriaanse & Lindemans, 1920 (Sulawesi), on which the description of this new subspecies is mainly based. More details are given in the description of the preimaginal instars.
Description of the adults:
Clear sexual dimorphism, clear mimesis of dead leaves in both sexes. Habitus and morphology as in other related taxa of the trifenestrata species-group. In both sexes the fore wing apices appear more similar those in the andrei-group (sensu Nässig 1989) and the male fore wing ocellus between veins M1 and R5 (termination of veins sensu Peigler 1989) are slightly larger than in C. trifenestrata javana. Some female specimens are intensive reddish colored, as already noted by Nässig et al. (1996), but there are also ocre females known from the Cameron Highlands. In the male genitalia the medial process of the transtilla is large and rectangular and the cornuti in the vesica of the aedoeagus are conspicuous. The male holotype, the female allotype and most of the paratype specimens are in Coll. Paukstadt & Paukstadt [now coll. L. H. Paukstadt (Wilhelmshaven)], separated from the main collection. They are donated to a Museum at a later date.
Description of the preimaginal instars.
Ovum flattened ovoid shaped, white colored, 1.68 by 1.38 by 1.25 mm. Structures of chorion not conspicuous.
1st instar larva 3.5 mm long after hatching from egg, ground coloration yellow, with each one pale black longitudinal stripe between rows of scoli. Head, prothoracic shield, anal plate, prolegs, legs, tips of dorsal scoli, and bases of dorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment black. Scoli mostly in six longitudinal rows, dorsal scoli with spines at apex. Bases of dorsal and subdorsal scoli of prothorax fused. Subdorsal scoli with translucent bristles and subspiracular scoli with setae. Scoli of 8th abdominal segment, meso- and metathorax dorsally approached as in C. trifenestrata and C. agria Jordan, 1909, the dorsal scoli on 8th abdominal segment are never approached in C. hayatiae Paukstadt & Suhardjono, 1992.
2nd instar larva mostly black colored just after moulting, coloration changed to brownish black later, ventrally pale green. Cuticle covered with short white setae. Hair bases on black cuticle greenish colored. Thus far, a greenish coloration of the hair bases is unknown in other taxa of the trifenestrata species-group. Dorsal scoli with each one long white hair, hairs on meso- and metathorax longer than others. Head and legs dark reddish brown. Arrangement of scoli unchanged.
3rd instar larva ground coloration still black. The ground coloration remains as a middorsal interrupted line and irregular rings between each segment only. Densely packed hair bases on black cuticle first yellowish, later the hair bases increased and completely fused, their coloration changed to green. Therefore the black ground color becomes considerable reduced, the whole larva appears of green color. The green coloration of the larva in this and the following instars is unique in the trifenestrata species-group. Scoli mostly yellowish green or green, a few scoli ocre or pale greenish or reddish brown. Head, prothoracic shield, legs, prolegs, and anal plate ruby-colored. Setae mostly as in previous instar, additional long white setae at subspiracular scoli present.
4th instar larva ground coloration still black, including ventrally. Density of hair bases first reduced and yellowish or ocre colored, the coloration of the larva appears black. A few days after moulting the hair bases increased and fused, the coloration changed to greenish. Exceptionally the hair bases of the lateral longitudinal stripe remain yellowish. Black ground color much reduced now, therefore the larva appears green. Scoli first translucent beige, later pale turquoise. Head, prothoracic shield, legs, prolegs, and anal plate ruby-colored, spiracles black. White setae on cuticle much thicker than in previous instar. Single setae on apex of scoli are about twice as long as the diameter of the larva, setae on cuticle about as long as the diameter of the larvae or even much shorter (setae of three clear different lengths are present). Arrangement of scoli unchanged.
5th instar larva ground coloration first black, subspiracular line with tiny yellow or brownish yellow hair bases. Head, prothoracic shield, dorsal and subdorsal scoli of prothorax, legs, prolegs, and anal plate ruby-colored, spiracles black. Two or three days after the moult again drastic morphological changes take place. All hair bases increased and fused, the coloration of the hair bases changed to greenish. Except ventrally, black coloration much reduced now. In the Indian nominotypical population the hair bases are densely packed and yellow, while in the Philippine population of C. trifenestrata treadawayi the coloration is less intensively yellowish and the hair bases are much less densely packed. The hair bases of the Indonesian populations of C. trifenestrata javana are white from Sumatra (cf. Nässig et al. 1996) and pale yellowish from Jawa and as sparsely as in the Philippine population. The mature larva of C. trifenestrata kransi is similar the Philippine population. Thus far, there is no population of C. trifenestrata known from literature, where the larval instars presenting drastic morphologic changes in the coloration and density of hair bases as demonstrated here. We have to point out that the larvae of C. trifenestrata cameronensis subsp. nov. are not clear aposematic (black, red and white or black, red and yellow) as in larvae of Indian, Indonesian and Philippine populations. The larvae are mainly green colored, except in the 1st larval instar. Scoli mostly whitish otherwise appear pale turquoise, lateral line variable yellow, pale ocre or greenish. In C. trifenestrata javana from Sumatra and Java, as well as in other subspecies of C. trifenestrata all scoli are more or less reddish. The lateral line is reddish brown in C. trifenestrata javana from Sumatra and Java. Arrangements of scoli unchanged. Mature larva 7 to 8 cm long.
Pupa in the male length 20 mm and largest width 8 mm, antennal covers 6.5 mm long and 3.1 mm wide. Female pupa length 25 mm and largest width 10 mm. Ground coloration ocre or brownish. Cremaster with hooked spines at apex for affixing pupa to cocoon.
Cocoon length 2.8-3.5 cm and largest width 1.1-1.5 cm, pale yellowish or beige colored, with a variable small perforation (fine meshed). All parts of the wall which are directly attached to the leaf are without perforation. The cocoon more or less looks like a cocoon of C. hayatiae or of one of the andrei species-group, but not like the typical wide-meshed golden yellow cocoon of a taxon of the trifenestrata species-group.