List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)


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Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (1997): Die Präimaginalstadien von Attacus crameri C. Felder 1861 von Ambon, Indonesien (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 107 (10): pp. 437-447; col.-pl. with 4 figs., 13 b/w figs.

Summary: Attacus crameri C. Felder, 1861 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is distributed in the Moluccas Province, Indonesia only. This taxon was recorded from the islands of Seram (Ceram), Ambon and Buru (Central Moluccas) and from the island of Bacan (Northern Moluccas) thus far. There are no further records for other nearby islands, but established populations may also occur. Although A. crameri is a relatively common taxon, nothing was known on its biology and ecology so far, and the early stages were unknown. Occasionally living cocoons of A. lorquinii C. & R. Felder, 1861 from the Philippines, were sold under the name of A. crameri. We have to point out that A. crameri is not known from the Philippines and vice versa no Philippine species of the genus Attacus Linnaeus, 1767 is presently known to occupy any island of the Indonesian archipelago thus far. In both sexes A. crameri is an easy to recognize and unmistakable species. In early 1997 we received some eggs of A. crameri which came to light on the island of Ambon. We were able to rear this magnificent species for the first time. Larvae were reared in Germany under laboratory condition on privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium, Oleaceae) and lilac (Syringa vulgaris, Oleaceae). In this paper a rearing report, some notes on the biology and ecology, and detailed descriptions and illustrations of the preimaginal instars are given for the first time.

Descriptions of the immature stages:
Ovum 3.3 by 2.9 by 2.1 mm, chorion ca. 0.075 mm thick. Coloration external pale ochre, partially coated with pale reddish brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate. Ovum internal white with pale gray spots, which are surrounded by 5 till 7 tiny gray dots analogous to the chorionic sculpturing. Chorionic sculpturing conspicuous, unsymmetrically, but mostly honeycomb-shaped. Before hatching of the larva the chorion becomes transparent. The black bristles, as well as the black pattern of the larva are well visible throught the chorion.
1st instar larva approximately 8 mm long after hatching from egg, main coloration yellowish white with two black stripes around each segment, stripes are dorsally fused. Segments mostly have six or eight fleshy scoli, two dorsal scoli and each side one subdorsal, one subspiracular and one ventrolateral scolus. Ventrolateral scoli mostly reduced but generally a strong bristle with a conspicuous hairbase still left. 3rd to 7th abdominal segments with 6 scoli each, 8th abdominal segment with 5 scoli (the dorsal scoli are fused), 9th abdominal segment and posterior end of anal plate with 4 scoli each. Scoli colored as body, apex of dorsal and subdorsal scoli with each 5 or 6 strong black spines with white tips, all other scoli with a higher number but more slender bristles. Prolegs gray, thoracic legs, head and patch on the outside of each anal proleg black. Larva not covered with whitish waxy powder in 1st instar.
2nd instar larva ground coloration and pattern mostly as in other taxa of this genus but the black pattern not yet totally reduced and no orange blotches present. Black pattern still present but reduced to black spots and numerous tiny dots. Head, prothoracic chield, thoracic legs and a patch on the outside of each anal proleg black. Spiracles brown, yellow centered. Subspiracular scoli of the thoracic and the 7th and 8th abdominal segments black with a whitish waxy top. The morphology of the bristles on apex of the scoli clear different from the previous instar. Bristles shorter, thinner and transparent whitish colored. Plenty of tiny bristles even on the bases of the scoli present. The larva is not much covered with whitish waxy powder.
3rd instar larva ground coloration yellowish white, black pattern nearly fully reduced. Thoracic legs and the patch on the outside of each anal proleg black. Spiracles brownish orange, head capsule pale yellowish green. Two clear morphs in the coloration of the subspiracular scoli observed. Either the subspiracular scoli of the thoracic and the 7th and 8th abdominal segments are black as in previous instar, or complete subspiracular scoli are black, as well as the ventrolateral scoli of the prothorax. Black colored scoli wear a waxy whitish powder at apex. Generally the wax production was observed less than in other species of this genus. No reductions of scoli observed.
4th instar larva ground coloration yellowish green, laterally pale greenish. Head and prolegs pale green, Thoracic legs and patch on the outside of each anal proleg black. Spiracles light yellowish brown. Cuticle covered with numerous tiny yellowish brown dots, each bearing a white hair; the dots are not covered with wax at any time. Subspiracular scoli mostly colored as in the previous instar. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli turquoise. Scoli at the end of the anal plate much reduced and the scoli of the 9th abdominal segment slightly reduced. Black subspiracular scoli of meso-, metathorax and 8th abdominal segment prominent, as well as the ventrolateral scoli of the thoracic and 1st and 2nd abdominal segments. All scoli covered with tiny white hairs on conspicuous cone-shaped hair bases. Larva covered with a whitish waxy powder, but its intensity is much reduced when compared with other species of the genus Attacus.
5th instar larva morphologically clear distinct from all other known larvae in the genus Attacus. Main coloration yellowish green, only the lateral patches on the anal prolegs remain black. Scoli dorsally and subdorsally pale blue and subspiracularly mostly dark violet or black colored. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli of prothorax and 9th abdominal segment much reduced. All four scoli at the posterior end of the anal plate much reduced and at least the outermost scoli morphologically changed to active defensive glands. The wax production of the larva is reduced.
6th instar larva main coloration pale green, scoli pale blue and patch on anal prolegs brownish orange. Spiracles white, pale bluish bordered. Head, thoracic legs and prolegs bluish. The coloration is toned down due to the waxy cover in older larva. Scoli dorsally and subdorsally slightly reduced at thoracic and anal segments. Anal plate with six active defensive glands. Although the dorsal and subdorsal scoli of the prothorax are totally reduced, no functions as defensive glands were observed. Subspiracular scoli of the prothorax long, facing cephad and covered with white hairs as in A. erebus Fruhstorfer, 1904 from Sulawesi. The mature larva is about 12 cm long.
Cocoon as in other species of this genus, but comparatively small in this rearing, length approximately 6.5 cm and largest width approx. 3 cm. Cocoon wrapped inside a leaf and fixed to the twig by loose silk only. Main coloration grayish brown, but discolored grayish black after contaminated with water.
Pupa mostly brownish black colored, its morphology as in other species of this genus. Male pupa length 41 mm and largest width 18 mm; antennal covers 21 by 9 mm. Antennal covers longer than covers of legs of 3rd thoracic segments. Female pupa length 42 mm and largest width 19 mm; antennal covers 17 by 7 mm. Antennal covers as long as covers of legs of 3rd thoracic segments. Cremaster more rounded in the female pupa than in the male.