List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, L. H. & Paukstadt, U. (1997): Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Antheraea cordifolia Weymer 1906 von Sulawesi, Indonesien, sowie Angaben zur Biologie und Ökologie (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 107 (4): pp. 133-141; 9 figs.

Summary: For the first time the life-history of Antheraea (Antheraea) cordifolia Weymer, 1906 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia is completely presented. A. cordifolia is endemic to the island of Sulawesi and the adjacent island of Kabaena. The name A. fickei Weymer, 1909 presently is considered being a junior synonym of A. cordifolia (cf. Naumann 1995). Some eggs of A. cordifolia were obtained from a female, which came to light in Puncak Palopo, 1300 m above sea level, South Sulawesi Province. A. cordifolia was successfully reared by the senior author in Germany under laboratory conditions using Himalaya birch (Betula utilis) as hostplant. The larvae were kept under tropical conditions with temperatures ranging from between 24 grad and 28 grad centigrade and a very high humidity of approximately about 100 per cent. Rearing observations on the ecology, biology and on behavior are recorded, the hitherto unknown preimaginal instars are figured. A. cordifolia represents a species of the frithi-subgroup of the paphia/frithi-group (sensu Nässig 1991) [recte mylitta/frithi-group (sensu U. Paukstadt, Brosch & L. H. Paukstadt 1999)]. Although the larva of A. cordifolia fits into the frithi-subgroup of the genus Antheraea Hübner, 1819 ("1816") the arrangement within this group needs further investigation [remarks: presently the taxon cordifolia is placed into the cordifolia-subgroup (sensu Holloway, Naumann & Nässig 1996) of the mylitta/frithi-group].

Description of the preimaginal instars:
Ovum 3.0 by 2.6 by 2.0 mm, chorion 0.038 mm thick. Ground coloration white, covered with a pale brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate.
1st instar larva approximately 7 mm long after hatching from egg, ground coloration yellow. Prothorax dorsally and subdorsally white with a black prothoracic shield. Anal plate and anal prolegs whitish. 2nd to 6th abdominal segments dorsally with a mostly connected row of black patches. 1st to 8th abdominal segments with a subdorsal and a lateral longitudinal row of black patches, the ground coloration in this area slightly suffused with grayish black coloration. Head and legs glossy black. Scoli mostly in six longitudinal rows with translucent whitish or black bristles at apex. The spiny bristles are most probably effective mechanical defensive measures. Prothorax with 6 scoli, dorsal and subdorsal scoli obviously fused, bearing a double number of spines, lateral scoli much larger with additional spines at apex, ventrolateral scoli reduced. Meso- and metathorax with each 8 scoli, ventrolateral scoli reduced and dorsal scoli slightly approached. 8th abdominal segment with 5 scoli, middorsally a fused scolus with two well separated tips present. 9th abdominal segment with 4 scoli and anal plate caudally with 2 scoli.
2nd instar larva ground coloration pale green, dorsally yellowish green, with a yellowish longitudinal line below and a pale green longitudinal line above subdorsal row of scoli. Head reddish brown, anal prolegs and prolegs pale brown, spiracles yellowish. Prothorax white, as well as its dorsal scoli, prothoracic shield bipartite black. Border of anal plate brown colored, each side with a black patch. Scoli orange with strong spines at apex. Dorsal scoli of metathorax and middorsal scolus of 8th abdominal segment with black apex, latter with two clear separated tips. Cuticle subspiracularly and ventrolaterally covered with short white setae, other areas of tegumen covered with short white club-shaped hairs.
3rd instar larva mostly as in previous instar, no considerable changes in the larval morphology observed.
4th instar larva ground coloration pale green. Abdominal segments suprastigmally (just below subdorsal row of reduced scoli) with a reddish brown and a yellowish white line. Anal prolegs and the border of the anal plate brown. Prothorax dorsally whitish, head and legs ocre. Spiracles black, whitish centered and yellowish bordered. Dorsal scoli still prominent on 8th abdominal segment, as well as on meso- and metathorax, whitish colored. All other scoli mostly much reduced, dome-shaped, turquoise colored. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax, dorsal scoli of 1st and middorsal scolus of 8th abdominal segment with several spines at apex. Other scoli mostly with a single spine and/or a long brown hair. The cuticle is covered with short yellowish green club-shaped hairs. Abdominal segments dorsally with some slightly longer and thinner club-shaped hairs and yellowish long setae. Long brown bristles are present at caudal ends of anal prolegs and the anal plate.
5th instar larva ground coloration yellowish green, basally darker than dorsally. Suprastigmal lines on abdominal segments as in previous instar but uppermost line dark reddish colored, as well as the border of the anal plate. Anal prolegs with a dark brown deltoid patch, cephally yellowish white bordered. Head and legs ocre, head with several small black tubercles (warts). Prothorax white, dorsally reddish and caudally turquoise bordered. All scoli much reduced, dome-shaped, pale turquoise colored. Thoracic scoli still with some spines at apex, other scoli mostly with a single long black hair, subspiracular scoli with maximum three hairs. Middorsal scoli of 8th abdominal segment not fully fused. Two much approached dome-shaped scoli present with each one long black hair. Soft club-shaped hairs still present on thoracic and anal segments. Other segments with short yellowish green setae. Mature larva approximately 10 cm long.
Cocoon multi-walled, ca. 3.5-4.5 cm long and 1.8-2.3 cm diameter. Outer wall variable yellowish white or pale green, of irregular loose silk, wrapped into leaves. Cocoon secured asymmetrically at its cephal end with silk to the leaf-stalk and twig, no strong peduncle present. The cross-sectional view of the whitish inner wall is oval as in other taxa of this genus. Inner wall covered with a thin layer of white silk. No preformed opening at cephal end present.
Pupa in the male length/width 32/13 mm, antennal covers 13/6 mm, and in the female pupa 42/17 mm, antennal covers 16/6 mm. Light detecting "window" present at cephal end. Ground coloration dark reddish brown or black, laterally and ventrally pale reddish brown. Cuticle of pupa covered with numerous short brown bristles, except on covers of antennae, legs, head and wings. There are no earlier records in literature known to us, reporting bristles or hairs at the cuticle of pupa in the genus Antheraea. Cremaster with several strong bristles analogous to those at caudal end of the anal plate in mature larva. Bristles at cremaster are flattened and slightly dorsally curved for affixing pupa to cocoon.