List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)


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Paukstadt, L. H., Naumann, S. & Paukstadt, U. (1996): Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Samia vandenberghi (Watson 1915) von Sulawesi, Indonesien, sowie Angaben zur Biologie und Ökologie (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 106 (9): pp. 353-359; 7 figs.

Summary: In this contribution to knowledge the Indonesian wild silkmoths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) the preimaginal instars of Samia vandenberghi (Watson, 1915) from the island of Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia are thoroughly described and figured. Some informations on rearing and field observations on the ecology, biology, and on the behavior are given. The mature larva is well distinguishable from those of other related taxa of this genus.

Descriptions of immature stages:
Ovum slightly ovoid-shaped, 1.75 by 1.30 by 1.25 mm, egg shell 0.03 mm thick. Coloration whitish with pale yellowish brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate. Chorionic sculpturing not conspicuous, deepenings of 0.013 mm diameter cover the shell.
1st instar larva length 3 mm just after hatching from egg. Ground coloration yellow; head capsule, prothoracic plate, spiracles, legs, and posterior end of anal plate glossy dark brown or black. Segments laterally with a few black patches. Scoli dark brown with transparent spines at apex, not prominent, mostly arranged in six longitudinal rows, except on 8th abdominalsegment with fife scoli were a single median dorsal scolus is present, on 9th abdominalsegment with four scoli, and on meso- and metathorax with each eight scoli.
2nd instar larva not much different from the previous instar. Main coloration yellow, head capsule glossy black, black pattern slightly increased.
3rd instar larva main coloration yellowish or yellowish green, at the end of this instar cuticle covered with whitish waxy powder (rearing Naumann: the first wax production was observed shortly after the moulting). Head capsule, legs and spiracles black, prothoracic plate with a small black stripe only, prolegs yellow. Black pattern increased, each segment with two black rings or rows of patches just before and behind the scoli. Bristles shorter than in the previous instars.
4th instar larva main coloration turquoise, black pattern reduced. Head capsule, prothoracic plate, anal plate, legs (rearing Naumann: legs greenish black), and prolegs yellow. Dorsal scoli pink (rearing Naumann: yellowish); basolateral scoli of thoracic, 1st and 2nd abdominal segments black; other scoli yellow. Scoli much longer than in previous instars; bristles mostly reduced except those at apex of subspiracular scoli.
5th instar larva turquoise coloration with waxy powder much reduced. Black pattern as in the 4th instar but dotches above prolegs elongated enlarged. Prolegs and subspiracular scoli yellow, all other scoli orange. Length of scoli reduced and bristles only at prolegs present. The mature larva is about 5 to 6 cm long in this rearing.
Cocoon grayish brown, length 3.5 to 4.5 cm.
Pupa length in the male 2.5 cm, antennal covers length 10.5 and largest breadth 4.8 mm; length in female 2.5-3 cm and largest breadth 1 cm; antennal covers length 11 mm and largest breadth 4.5-5 mm. Main coloration dorsal dark reddish brown, lateral and ventral pale brown.