List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, L. H., Paukstadt, U., Naumann, S. & Kohll, S. (1996): Beschreibung der Präimaginalstadien von Attacus erebus Fruhstorfer 1904 von Sulawesi, Indonesien, sowie Angaben zur Biologie und Ökologie (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 106 (8): pp. 297-305; 9 figs.

Summary: Attacus erebus Fruhstorfer, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is endemic to the island of Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia. There are still no records for the eastern part of the Central Sulawesi Province and Southeastern Sulawesi Province. Although this taxon is relatively common in some areas, nothing was known on its biology and ecology. The preimaginal instars were unknown, except a color drawing of the mature larva, pupa and cocoon by Ver Huell (1836) plus a color picture of a single [L3?]-larva by Naumann (1995). The senior author successfully reared this species for the first time. Pictures of the preimaginal instars were taken and some rearing observations were recorded. For the first time the complete life-history of A. erebus is presented and compared to those of A. atlas (Linnaeus, 1758).

Description of the preimaginal instars:
Ovum 2.75 by 2.45 by 2.10 mm. Ground coloration whitish, partially coated with reddish brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate. Choronic sculpturing conspicuous.
1st instar larva ground coloration white with mostly two black stripes around each segment posterior and anterior of transverse rows of scoli. 1st to 3rd abdominal segments with yellow patches around spiracles. Segments mostly have six fleshy scoli colored as body. Scoli with spines at apex. Cuticle without wax production.
2nd instar larva abdominal segments laterally with each one yellowish orange patch, black pattern slightly reduced. Subspiracular scoli black. Bristles at apex of scoli still present. Larva covered with whitish waxy powder.
3rd instar larva with orange patches at 1st to 3rd abdominal segments. Subspiracular scoli of pro- and mesothorax and of 7th and 8th abdominal segment still black, other scoli colored as body; bristles at apex of scoli present but slightly reduced in size. No reduction of scoli observed. Larva covered with whitish waxy powder.
4th instar larva ground coloration whitish green, head capsule yellowish green, lateral patch on the outside of each anal proleg bluish black. Lateral orange patches as in the previous instar, black pattern considerably reduced. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli of meso- and metathorax slightly reduced, facing aft, bristles at apex still present.
5th instar larva ground coloration bluish green. 1st and 2nd abdominal segment lateral with each a single yellowish patch. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli of the thoracic segments and subspiracular scoli of the abdominal segments reduced. Scoli of anal segments reduced. The morphology of at least two anal scoli transformed into defensive glands, which were observed being fully functioning. No bristles at apex of scoli present, but tiny hairs. Outside patch on the outside of each anal proleg reddish brown, yellowish bordered.
6th instar larva ground coloration dark green, larva still covered with whitish waxy powder. Patch on the outside of each anal proleg matt black, yellow bordered. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli of pro-, meso- and metathorax reduced, and the morphology of those of meso- and metathorax changed to defensive glands. Eight defensive glands present on thoracic segments and four on anal plate. Scoli and prolegs covered with tiny white hairs. Length of mature larva 12 cm.
Cocoon reddish brown, wall in this rearing softer than in A. atlas. Length 6.5-8 cm and width 2.5-3 cm.
Pupa ground coloration reddish brown, partially black. Length/width in the male 48/19 mm and in the female 50/21 mm. Antennal covers length/width in the male 22/10 mm and in the female 20/7 mm.