List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (1993): Die Präimaginalstadien von Samia yayukae Paukstadt, Peigler & Paukstadt 1993 von Timor, Indonesien, sowie Angaben zur Biologie und Ökologie (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 103 (20): pp. 357-366; 12 figs.

Summary: Samia yayukae U. Paukstadt, R. S. Peigler & L. H. Paukstadt, 1993 [recte Samia kikibudiamini Paukstadt, Paukstadt & Suhardjono, 2002] (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was observed and collected on the island of Timor, Indonesia. The moth was maintained in Germany by the junior author. For the first time the pre-imaginal instars of S. yayukae are described and figured. Rearing and field observations on the biology and ecology are recorded. S. yayukae (Timor) was observed to be on the wing from January till May. Host plants on which cocoons or larvae were found are the two spined bushes Toodalia asiatica (L.) Lamk. and Xanthoxylum armatum DC., both Rutaceae, which vernacular names are `kayu duri` (= spined bush).

Descriptions of the immature stages:
Ovum ovoid-shaped, length 1.78 mm, width 1.30 mm and height 1.18 mm, thickness of the egg shell 0.025 mm. Coloration beige with pale- or dark-brown secretion for affixing egg to substrate. Chorionic sculpturing not conspicuous.
1st instar larva approximately 4 mm long when hatching from egg, main coloration yellow. Scoli not prominent, mostly in six longitudinal rows, excepting single median dorsal scolus on 8th abdominal segment, 9th abdominal segment with 4 scoli and the posterior end of the anal plate with 2 scoli. Scoli bearing mostly 4 - 5 black spines at apex. Segments with two grayish black patches between each scoli. Head, prolegs, prothoracic plate and scoli glossy black.
2nd instar larva not considerable different from the previous instar. Anal plate glossy black and prolegs with a black ring. Scoli longer, glossy black with yellow bases and transparent white spines at apex. Spiracles black, yellow centered.
3rd instar larva pale-yellow colored with black patches. Substigmal black patches bigger than other. Anal prolegs glossy black, yellow bordered as in previous instar. Substigmal scoli and scoli of anal plate glossy black, other scoli whitish yellow and slightly covered with whitish waxy powder.
4th instar larva main coloration whitish yellow, very thin covered with waxy powder. Head black and yellow, legs yellow, prolegs yellow with black lateral patch, anal prolegs colored as body, with glossy black patch centered on the outside of each anal proleg. Segments mostly with two dorsal and two subdorsal black patches and one large black subspiracular blotch; abdominal segments with a black ventrolateral patch.
5th instar larva bluish green without wax in the field (but scoli of reared larvae covered with whitish waxy powder), subspiracular scoli white, prothoracic plate with two yellow patches, spiracles black, anal segments yellow with black spots. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli yellow with whitish yellow top and turquoise base. Segments mostly with one black patch between each scolus. Patch on the outside of anal prolegs yellow, posterior end turquoise bordered. No turquoise colorations in reared larvae. Posterior scoli of anal plate and dorsal and subdorsal scoli of prothorax reduced.
Cocoon dark-brown colored, length in this rearing about 4 cm.
Pupa length 2.5-3 cm. Antennal covers length 10-11 mm and largest breadth 4 mm. Main coloration dorsal dark reddish brown or pale-brown, laterally and ventrally ocre colored.