List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (1993): Die Präimaginalstadien von Actias groenendaeli Roepke 1954 von Timor, Indonesien, sowie Angaben zur Biologie und Ökologie (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 103 (17): pp. 305-314; 10 figs.

Summary: Actias groenendaeli Roepke, 1954 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is an extremely rare species in collections. In 1992 and 1993 the number of four entomological expeditions to the Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia were carried out by the authors to search for this exceedingly rare species. Some field observations on the life-history of A. groenendaeli were made on the islands of Flores and Timor. The only host plant on which cocoons were found in the wild is Timonius sericeus K. Sch. (Rubiaceae), the vernacular names are "kuro-kuro" and "timo" on the island of Timor. A. groenendaeli (Timor) was reared in Germany under laboratory conditions by the junior author using sweetgum (Liquidambar spp., Hammelidaceae) as food plant. For the first time some rearing observations on the ecology and biology are recorded, and the pre-imaginal instars of A. groenendaeli are thoroughly described and figured. No taxonomic changes are proposed.

Descriptions of immature stages:
Ovum length approximately 2.6 mm, width 2.3 mm and height 1.7 mm; the chorion is 0.05 mm thick. Egg shell consists of two layers. Coloration of the outer layer is light brownish, partially covered with red to black brown secretion, which is used to fix the egg to substrate. Chorionic sculpturing asymmetrically reticulate. Coloration of the inner layer is white with irregular brown patches.
1st instar larva approximately 8 mm long when hatching from egg. Head glossy reddish brown, main coloration mostly orange, abdominal segments 1 to 4 dorsally and laterally gray, abdominal segments 1 to 8 lateral with each three black patches, subspiracular stripe yellowish, dorsal scoli mostly yellowish with orange apex, thoracic legs and prolegs pale reddish brown, anal plate whitish. Scoli in six longitudinal rows, excepting the single median dorsal scolus on the 8th abdominal segment. Prothorax and the 9th abdominal segment with four rows scoli. Dorsal scoli on meso- and metathorax and the single median dorsal scolus considerable longer than other scoli, subdorsal scoli shorter than subspiracular scoli. Mostly 6 to 10 short white primary setae on the apices of scoli present, apices of subdorsal scoli with approximately 3 setae only.
2nd instar larva main coloration yellowish green with yellow subspiracular line connecting yellowish orange scoli. Dorsal orange scoli with yellow bases, those of meso- and metathorax and single median scolus with black apex. Prothoracic plate black, head dark brown, legs pale brown with dark brown or black stripe. Subdorsal scoli mostly much reduced, with a single seta at apex. Other scoli with 5 to 7, the single median scolus with up to 10 black spines at apex, each scolus with a single longer black seta arising from center. Cuticle with irregular tiny white granulations, each bearing seta. Small black spots on anal plate present.
3rd instar larva not much different from the previous 2nd instar. Main coloration pale green with yellowish green subspiracular line. Irregular tiny white granulation increased, spiracles gray white, scoli mostly with orange apex, subdorsal scoli pale yellowish and much reduced. Patch on the outside of each anal proleg yellowish with posterior edge black. Spines at apex of scoli reduced in number and length. A nice larva in this instar.
4th instar larva pale yellowish green, subspiracular stripe and white granulations disappearing. Scoli with yellow or light yellowish orange apex, each bearing radial short black spines and with a long single seta arising from center. Dorsal and lateral black-red-yellow colored ring between abdominal segments 1 and 2 present (located at posterior end of the 1st abdominalsegment). Head dark brown with lighter frons and clypeus. Spiracles, legs and prolegs brownish, anal prolegs yellow, posterior end brownish black, anal plate with small black spots each bearing a seta. Scoli now mostly in four longitudinal rows. Subdorsal scoli absent and subspiracular scoli smaller than in the previous instar.
5th instar larva main coloration yellowish green, apices of scoli ocre with black spines. Dorsal scoli with a single white seta arising from center. Subdorsal scoli absent; subspiracular scoli of thoracic and abdominal segments 1 and 2 short with 3 to 6 black spines at apex; other subspiracular scoli reduced, each with two long black setae. Anal prolegs yellow with black posterior end. Mature larva length approximately 10 cm.
In all instars the larvae of A. groenendaeli were found being clearly different from those of other taxa in this species-group.
Cocoon irregular in shape, not perforated as in other taxa of the maenas-species group, with exit opening at anterior end. Coloration glossy white. Length 6.5 and width 3 cm.
Pupa length 4 cm, main coloration ocre; thorax, antennal and wing covers dark brown. Antennal covers of female pupa approximately length 11 mm and largest width 5 mm. Head with transparent light-detecting "window" between eye covers.