List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)


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Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (1993): Die Präimaginalstadien von Attacus dohertyi W. Rothschild 1895 von Timor, Indonesien, sowie Angaben zur Biologie und Ökologie (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 103 (16): pp. 281-293; 14 figs.

Summary: Attacus dohertyi W. Rothschild, 1895 is a very rare wild silkmoth (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in collections. In a 1989 study, which was carried out by R. S. Peigler, only ten specimens were found preserved (NHM/London and RNHL/Leiden) in a survey of all major American and European museums. In 1992 and 1993 entomological expeditions to Timor, Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, were carried out by the senior author to search for this species. Cocoons and adults were collected in western Timor. Some field observations on the life-history of A. dohertyi were made. A. dohertyi was maintained in Germany under laboratory conditions by the junior author. Rearing observations on the ecology and biology are recorded, and for the first time the pre-imaginal instars of A. dohertyi from Timor are thoroughly described and figured. No taxonomic changes are made. The adults are smaller in size than those of A. atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) and A. inopinatus Jurriaanse & Lindemans, 1920, which probably is caused due to the arid and hot climate on the island of Timor. Male adults presenting 1st and 2nd accessory fenestrae in fore- and hindwings, which are usually not present in the males of A. inopinatus from the nearby island of Flores. A. dohertyi was observed being on the wing in the months of January till May, July or August and September till December. Host plants on which cocoons or larvae were found are avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) and sirsak (Annona muricata, Annonaceae). Larvae were reared in Germany on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima, Simaroubaceae), privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium, Oleaceae) and lilac (Syringa vulgaris, Oleaceae).

Descriptions of immature stages:
Ovum length 2.5 mm, width 1.7 mm, height 1.2 mm, and chorion 0.02 mm thick. Ground coloration white; chorionic sculpturing evenly honeycomb-shaped and transparent. Partially coated with transparent or weak brownish secretion for affixing egg to substrate.
1st instar larva ground coloration white with two black lateral stripes each segment. Segments mostly with six fleshy scoli colored as body, two dorsal scoli and each side one subdorsal and one subspiracular scolus. Dorsal and subdorsal abdominal scoli each with 3 or 4 spines at apex; number of spines of subspiracular abdominal scoli and thoracic scoli doubly. Subspiracular thoracic scoli, head, thoracic legs and patch on the outside of each anal proleg black.
2nd instar larva ground coloration white, lateral with orange blotches on meso- and metathorax and abdominal segments 1, 7 and 8. Head brown, thoracic legs black and the outsides of each anal proleg white. Black scoli as in 1st instar. Ventrolateral scoli on thoracic and abdominal segments 1 and 2 present. Scoli of anal plate slightly reduced. Straight scoli and body covered with whitish waxy powder.
3rd instar larva ground coloration white or grayish white. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli on meso- and metathorax and the reduced anal scoli either pale blue or intensive blue colored. In some individuals subspiracular scoli black colored. Patch on the outside of each anal proleg black. Head, thoracic legs and prolegs yellowish white. Larva covered with whitish waxy powder.
4th instar larva ground coloration light green, dorsal whitish green, waxy powder reduced. Subspiracular scoli black, anal plate bluish green, head and legs pale green. Patch on anal prolegs dark violet with cream-colored posterior edge. Scoli on anal segments reduced and morphologically transformed into defensive glands, which were observed being fully functioning. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli on meso- and metathorax slightly reduced and facing distally as in A. inopinatus. Prothoracic scoli reduced. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli on meso- and metathorax and subdorsal scoli on abdominal segment 1 and 8 with whitish green bases and dark blue tip, bearing wax at apex.
5th instar larvae ground coloration pale green. Patch on anal prolegs black with pale brown posterior edge. Dorsal and subdorsal scoli on meso- and metathorax, single median scolus and subdorsal scoli on 8th abdominal segment with white bases and dark blue tip, apex covered with waxy powder. All subspiracular scoli with whitish green bases and dark blue tip. Waxy powder present on dorsal scoli of abdominal segments 2 till 6 only. Eight defensive glands on anal segments present and their function observed.
6th instar larvae clear different from those of other Attacus-taxa; the larva bears resemblance to the genus Coscinocera from the Papuan region and Australia. All scoli present except those of the anal segments; ventrolateral thoracic scoli and ventrolateral scoli of abdominal segments 1 and 2 present. Main coloration of larva green or bluish green. Head, legs and prolegs colored as body; prolegs with white hairs at posterior end; patch on the outside of each anal proleg glossy black. Spiraculars turquoise, white bordered. Scoli mostly white with dark blue tip. Larva not covered with waxy powder; length about 12 cm.
Cocoon not clearly different from those of other taxa of this genus. Ground coloration dark brown.
Pupa coloration brown, length ca. 35-45 mm. Length and width of the antennal covers in male 24/12 mm and in female 20/7 mm, spiracles ca. 2 mm long.