List of Entomological Publications (Autobibliographie)
Ulrich PAUKSTADT & Laela Hayati PAUKSTADT


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Paukstadt, U. & Paukstadt, L. H. (1991): Über die Anordnung und Entwicklung von Tuberkeln, Borsten und Wehrdrüsen bei Attacus atlas-Populationen (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). - Entomologische Zeitschrift (Essen), 101 (1/2): pp. 1-20; 14 figs.

Summary: In this seventh contribution to our series on the knowledge of the preimaginal instars of the genus Attacus Linnaeus, 1767 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) a detailed description and additional data on the morphology and metamorphosis of scoli (tubercles), spines (sclerotized thorns from elongated scoli) and defensive glands are given for the first time, using A. atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae from western Java, Indonesia, as prototype. In this paper the distinction is demonstrated between the absolute (real) and relative expansion or reduction of the scoli. Relative changes in the size are compared with increases in the size of the larval head capsule for each larval instar. It was found that the observed changes in the size of the scoli, their conversion to defensive glands, and the arrangement and number of spines on the scoli most likely do not occur by chance, but may occur in order to provide each larval instar with the best possible protection from its predators. Field observations on the practical employment of spines, tubercles and defensive glands against predators of the larvae are still lacking. Additional observations are necessary. The data given here are probably representative for A. atlas from other regions as well.